Table 3

Results of cumulative odds ratio: risk and protective factors for unexcused and medical absences from school

Independent variableUnexcused absencesMedical absences
COR95% CICOR95% CI
Gender, boy (reference: girl) 1.54 1.49 to 1.60 0.87 0.84 to 0.90
School year, 9 (reference: year 8) 1.33 1.28 to 1.37 1.06 1.02 to 1.10
Maternal education level*
 Upper secondary 0.78 0.72 to 0.84 0.82 0.76 to 0.89
 Additional studies 0.70 0.64 to 0.75 0.81 0.75 to 0.88
 Higher education 0.57 0.52 to 0.61 0.74 0.68 to 0.80
Talking about concerns with parents†‡
 Occasionally 0.74 0.69 to 0.79 0.80 0.75 to 0.86
 Fairly often 0.53 0.50 to 0.57 0.68 0.63 to 0.73
 Often 0.41 0.38 to 0.44 0.61 0.57 to 0.65
Excessive internet use 1.38 1.35 to 1.42 1.24 1.21 to 1.27
Longer sleep duration, weekdays 0.78 0.77 to 0.79 0.84 0.83 to 0.86
Longer sleep duration, weekends1.000.99 to 1.010.980.97 to 1.00
Overall PA, days per week (reference: none)
 1 0.80 0.73 to 0.89 0.77 0.69 to 0.85
 2 0.82 0.74 to 0.90 0.72 0.65 to 0.79
 3 0.81 0.74 to 0.89 0.74 0.68 to 0.82
 4 0.76 0.70 to 0.84 0.71 0.65 to 0.78
 5 0.77 0.70 to 0.85 0.71 0.65 to 0.78
 6 0.77 0.69 to 0.85 0.69 0.62 to 0.76
 7 0.88 0.80 to 0.97 0.81 0.74 to 0.90
Vigorous PA per week (reference: none)‡
 30 min 0.91 0.84 to 0.990.980.90 to 1.07
 1 hour 0.78 0.72 to 0.840.950.87 to 1.02
 2–3 hours 0.75 0.69 to 0.80 0.90 0.84 to 0.97
 4–6 hours 0.70 0.64 to 0.75 0.84 0.78 to 0.91
 ≥7 hours 0.60 0.55 to 0.65 0.80 0.73 to 0.87
  • COR in bold are significant at p<0.001 level.

  • For example, when Embedded Image , the corresponding gender probabilities of a high level of unexcused absences were 0.0452 and 0.030 for boys and girls, respectively. Similarly, for moderate level of unexcused absences, probabilities where 0.380 and 0.285, and the probabilities of low unexcused absences were 0.575 and 0.685. Probabilities of both high and moderate unexcused absences were higher among boys as indicated by Embedded Image .

  • Analyses are based on 86.0% of participants for both unexcused absences (n=74 159) and medical absences (n=74 186).

  • *Reference: 9 years of comprehensive education.

  • †Reference: hardly ever.

  • ‡Protective association slightly greater for girls in both categories of absences.

  • CI, confidence interval; COR, Cumulative odds ratio; PA, physical activity.