Table 1

Study population characteristics and their association with maternal education level

≤9 years10–12 years13–14 years≥15 yearsAll
Pregnancy smoking
Excess weight during pregnancy*
Low EBF†
Maternal age (years)
Maternal country of birth
 Other HIC4.
Year of birth
Household income‡
  • Values are percentages unless stated otherwise. Missing data were imputed using multiple imputation. Data were missing on breast feeding for 11% (n=7260), pregnancy overweight for 11% (n=6994), pregnancy smoking for 6% (n=3874), maternal education for 2% (n=1044) and maternal country of birth for 1% (n=331) of children. Proportions and medians were calculated as averages over all imputations. Analyses included all 63 216 children.

  • *Excess weight during pregnancy was defined as pregnancy BMI ≥25 kg/m2 at the first antenatal care visit.

  • †Low EBF was defined as exclusive breast feeding <4 months.

  • ‡Annual quintiles with Q1 representing the highest household income quintile.

  • BMI, body mass index; HIC, high-income countries; LIC, low-income countries; LMIC, lower-middle-income countries; UMIC, upper-middle-income countries;