Ref | Exposures (size at birth) | Population | Outcomes | Effect size (CI), direction of the association | |||||||||||

Small | Cont | Large | |||||||||||||

EPT (<28 weeks) | ELBW (<1000 g) | VPT (<32 weeks) | VLBW (<1500 g) | PT (<37 weeks) | LBW (<2500 g) | SGA (<10th percentile) | BW (cont.) | GA (cont.) | Post term (>41 weeks) | HBW (>4000 g) | LGA (>90th percentile) | ||||

Body composition | |||||||||||||||

155 | X | Infants | Length (cm) | MD=−3.71 (−4.60 to –2.81) | |||||||||||

85 | X | 11 years | Height (cm) | z-score difference=−0.92 (−0.03), p<0.001 | |||||||||||

155 | X | Infants | Weight (kg) | MD=−0.59 (−0.75 to –0.44) | |||||||||||

85 | X | 11 years | Weight (kg) | z-score difference=−0.61 (0.18), p<0.001 | |||||||||||

155 | X | Infants | Head circumference (cm) | MD=−1.03 (−1.52 to –0.54) | |||||||||||

85 | X | 11 years | Head circumference (cm) | z-score difference=−1.52 (0.44), p<0.001 | |||||||||||

85 | X | 11 years | Body surface area | z-score difference=−0.10 (−0.01), p<0.001 | |||||||||||

155 | X | Infants | Total body fat (%) | MD=3.06 (0.25 to 5.88) | |||||||||||

156 | X | 4–7 years | Total body fat (%) | SMD=−3.05 (−8.73 to 2.62) | |||||||||||

155 | X | Infants | Fat mass (kg) | MD=−0.05 (−0.09 to –0.01) | |||||||||||

155 | X | Infants | Fat-free mass (kg) | MD=−0.46 (−0.64 to –0.27) | |||||||||||

156 | X | 4–7 years | Fat mass index | SMD=−1.31 (−5.42 to 2.81) | |||||||||||

156 | X | 4–7 years | Childhood Trunk Fat Index | SMD=1.03 (−1.64 to 3.71) | |||||||||||

157 | ** | At birth | Cord blood adiponectin concentrations | SMD=−1.14 (−2.15 to –0.12) | |||||||||||

157 | * | At birth | Cord blood adiponectin concentrations | SMD=−1.93 (−4.093 to –0.022) | |||||||||||

157 | X | At birth | Cord blood adiponectin concentrations | SMD=−0.383 (−0.744 to –0.022) | |||||||||||

158 | X | 0.5 hours–11 days | Total body water (%) | MD=4.40 (2.83 to 5.96) | |||||||||||

158 | X | 6 hours–7 days | Total body water (%) | β=−1.44 (−0.63 to –2.24) per week | |||||||||||

158 | X | 0.5 hours–11 days | Total body water (%) | MD=−5.23 (−4.54 to –5.91) | |||||||||||

Bone mineralisation | |||||||||||||||

159 | X | 10 years | Bone mass content | β=0.02 (0.01 to 0.04) | |||||||||||

159 | X | 10 years | Bone mass density | β=0.01 (−0.01 to 0.03) | |||||||||||

BMI | |||||||||||||||

84 | X | 6–32 years | BMI (kg/m^{2}) | MD=−0.50 (−1.10 to 0.09) | |||||||||||

84 | X | 5–30 years | BMI (kg/m^{2}) | MD=−0.30 (−0.54 to –0.05) | |||||||||||

84 | X | 4.5–35.7 years | BMI (kg/m^{2}) | MD=−0.13 (−0.40 to 0.14) | |||||||||||

84 | X | <10 years | BMI (kg/m^{2}) | MD=−0.70(−1.13 to –2.28) | |||||||||||

84 | X | <19 years | BMI (kg/m^{2}) | MD=5.20 (−3.82 to 14.21) | |||||||||||

84 | X | 10–19 years | BMI (kg/m^{2}) | MD=−0.25 (−0.76 to 0.26) | |||||||||||

91 | X_{GA}
| 16.0–46.9 years | BMI (kg/m^{2}) | β=0.52 (0.20 to 0.84)/kg increase | |||||||||||

91 | GA | 16.0–46.9 years | BMI (kg/m^{2}) | β=0.51 (−0.08 to 1.11)/kg increase | |||||||||||

91 | X | 16.0–46.9 years | BMI (kg/m^{2}) | β=0.52 (0.17 to 0.86)/kg increase | |||||||||||

77 | T | 0–2 years | BMI trajectory: class 2 (rapid growth to 2 years) | aOR=2.02 (1.49 to 2.74) | |||||||||||

77 | T | 0–6 years | BMI trajectory: class 3 (persistent rapid growth to 6 years) | aOR=1.89 (0.42 to 8.49) | |||||||||||

77 | ◊ | 0–2 years | BMI trajectory: class 2 (rapid growth) | aOR=1.48 (1.05 to 2.10) | |||||||||||

77 | ◊ | 0–6 years | BMI trajectory: class 3 (persistent rapid growth) | aOR=0.78 (0.10 to 6.45) | |||||||||||

77 | X | 0–2 years | BMI trajectory: class 2 (rapid growth) | aOR=0.81 (0.68 to 0.96) | |||||||||||

77 | X | 0–6 years | BMI trajectory: class 3 (persistent rapid growth) | aOR=0.48 (0.15 to 1.53) | |||||||||||

77 | T | 0–2 years | BMI trajectory: class 2 (rapid growth) | aOR=0.98 (0.86 to 1.12) | |||||||||||

77 | T | 0–6 years | BMI trajectory: class 3 (persistent rapid growth) | aOR=1.62 (0.88 to 2.99) | |||||||||||

Undernutrition | |||||||||||||||

160 | X | 12–60 months | Wasting (weight for length/height for age <2 z-scores) | OR=1.55 (1.21 to 1.97) | |||||||||||

160 | X | 12–60 months | Wasting (weight for length/height for age <2 z-scores) | OR=2.68 (2.23 to 3.21) | |||||||||||

160 | X | 12–60 months | Wasting (weight for length/height for age<2 z-scores) | OR=2.36 (2.14 to 2.60) | |||||||||||

160 | X | 12–60 months | Stunting (length/height for age<2 z-scores) | OR=1.69 (1.48 to 1.93) | |||||||||||

160 | X | 12–60 months | Stunting (length/height for age<2 z-scores) | OR=2.92 (2.56 to 3.33) | |||||||||||

160 | X | 12–60 months | Stunting (length/height for age<2 z-scores) | OR=2.32 (2.12 to 2.54) | |||||||||||

160 | X | 12–60 months | Underweight (weight for age less than 2 z-scores) | OR=1.66 (1.42 to 1.95) | |||||||||||

160 | X | 12c60 months | Underweight (weight for age less than 2 z-scores) | OR=3.48 (3.14 to 3.87) | |||||||||||

160 | X | 12–60 months | Underweight (weight for age less than 2 z-scores) | OR=2.96 (2.61 to 3.36) | |||||||||||

Overnutrition | |||||||||||||||

161 | X | 0–18 years | Overweight | OR=0.60 (0.54 to 0.67) | |||||||||||

161 | X | 1–75 years | Overweight | β=0.34 (0.28 to 0.40)/kg increase | |||||||||||

161 | X | 0–18 years | Overweight | OR=1.76 (1.65 to 1.87) | |||||||||||

156 | X | 6–14 years | Obesity | OR=1.19 (1.13 to 1.26) | |||||||||||

162 | ◊ | 3–18 years | Obesity | OR=0.87 (0.69 to 1.08) | |||||||||||

162 | X | 1–17 years | Obesity | OR=0.61 (0.46 to 0.80) | |||||||||||

162 | X | <6 years | Obesity | OR=0.61 (0.43 to 0.88) | |||||||||||

162 | X | 6–13 years | Obesity | OR=0.54 (0.32 to 0.90) | |||||||||||

162 | X | 13–17 years | Obesity | OR=0.74 (0.37 to 1.49) | |||||||||||

163 | X | 7–11 years | Obesity | β=0.649/kg increase | |||||||||||

162 | ◊ | 1–16 years | Obesity | OR=2.23 (1.91 to 2.61) | |||||||||||

162 | X | 0–17 years | Obesity | OR=2.07 (1.91 to 2.24) | |||||||||||

162 | X | <6 years | Obesity | OR=2.10 (1.93 to 2.29) | |||||||||||

162 | X | 6–13 years | Obesity | OR=1.76 (1.36 to 2.20) | |||||||||||

162 | X | 13–17 years | Obesity | OR=2.58 (1.56 to 4.26) |

Exposures: EPT (<28 weeks), ELBW (<1000 g), VPT (<32 weeks), VLBW (<1500 g), PT (<37 weeks), LBW (<2500 g), SGA (<10th percentile), post term (>41 weeks), HBW (>4000 g) and LGA (>90th percentile).

Symbols in exposures: X, as defined in exposure; X

_{GA}, adjusted and unadjusted for GA; GA, BW adjusted for GA; **, SGA <3rd, 5th and 10th percentile/value×by SD for GA; *, SGA <3rd percentile/value×by SD for GA; ◊, reference category 2500–4000 g; T, reference category GA 37≤term≤41.Outcomes: , harmful effect; , no effect; , beneficial effect;

*italic,*calculation/post review.aOR, adjusted OR; BMI, body mass index; BW, birth weight; BW (cont.), birth weight continuous; ELBW, extremely low birth weight; EPT, extremely preterm; GA, gestational age; GA (cont.), gestational age continuous; HBW, high birth weight; LBW, low birth weight; LGA, large for gestational age; MD, mean difference; PT, preterm; SGA, small for gestational age; SMD, standardised mean difference; VLBW, very low birth weight; VPT, very preterm.