Table 1

Intervention definitions used in included studies

InterventionsDefinitions*Example of ECD programmes delivered by healthcare providers
Responsive caregivingInterventions that promote responsive caregiving and interactions, and strengthen the parent–child relationship. These interventions aim to support and encourage sensitivity and responsiveness or secure attachmentWHO-UNICEF Care for Child Development Programme,15 Philani Plus (+)51
Early learning supportInterventions that enhance parent and/or caregivers’ access, attitudes, knowledge, skills or practices to support early learning and development of children. This could be through providing direct support to parents and/or caregivers which enable them to provide new early learning opportunities to their children. Other interventions may include providing education, information or guidance of early child developmentHealthy steps,70 Family Nurse Partnership59
Motor stimulationInterventions that target fine and gross motor development of children including interventions such as goals-activity-motor enrichment or constraint-induced movement therapyBRAIN-HIT Programme37
Any responsive caregivingAny trial with an intervention that includes responsive caregiving (even in low dose) regardless of the provision of other ECD or non-ECD interventionsWHO-UNICEF Care for Child Development Programme,15 Philani Plus (+)51
ECD-predominant interventionAny trial where ECD interventions (responsive caregiving, early learning support or motor stimulation as defined above) were implemented for more than 50% of contact time between healthcare provider and familyWHO-UNICEF Care for Child Development Programme,15 Philani Plus (+),51 Healthy steps,70 Family Nurse Partnership,59 BRAIN-HIT Programme37