Table 2

Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) prevalence among children in SEA region based on age group division (n=30)

StudyVDD (<50 nmol/L) prevalence or cumulative incidence based on age group
Febriani A et al 69 6 months–5 years: n/a
Irwinda and Andardi57 Newborn: 52.4%
Chuc et al 22 12 to <24 months: 42.5%, 24–36 months: 53.1%
Ariyawatkul and Lersbuasin46 Newborns: 89.3%
Oktaria et al 23 Newborns: 90%, 6 months: 13%
Loeb et al 36 3–17 years: 16.8%
Yani F et al 24 <5 years: 21%
Quah et al 25 15 years: 33%
Smith et al 51 6–11 months: 7.3%, 12–23 months: 11.3%, 24–59 months: 12.9%, 60+ months: 19.6%
Diana et al 26 6 months: 0.9%, 12 months: 4.3%
Al-Sadat et al 44 12–13 years: 92.6%
Rahmadhani et al 45 13 years: 70%
Pulungan et al 54 7–12 years: 39.2%
Nguyen et al 50 6–14 years: 67.39%
Poh et al*37 >2 years: 48%
Senaprom et al*39 3–13 years: 31.9%
Ernawati and Budiman*40 2.0–2.9 years: 49.2%, 3.0–5.9 years: 37.2%, 6.0–8.9 years: 45.8%, 9.0–12.9 years: 50.7%
Reesukumal et al*28 6–12 years: 19.5%
Sandjaja et al*33 2.0–4.9 years: 38.8%, 5.0–12 years: 45.8%
Rojroongwasinkul et al*38 3.0–5.9 years: urban 31.3%, rural 24.5%, 6.0–12.9 years: urban 52.2%, rural 29.2%
Le Nguyen et al*29 6–12 years: 48%–53%
Nguyen Bao et al*30 1–12 years: 46.6%
Poh et al*27 4.0–6.9 years: urban 34.6%, rural 17.9%, 7.0–12 years: urban 57.3%, rural 45.6%
Laillou et al 43 <5 years: 57.3%
Poomthavorn et al 31 <18 years: 11.2%
Khor et al 42 7–12 years: 72.4%
Houghton et al 49 6–14 years: 4%
Tangngam et al 47 4.8–17.2 years: 96.4%
Soesanti et al*34 Not specified
Hussain and Elnajeh32 13–18 years: 16.1%
  • *Data from SEANUTS. Poh et al 37 was chosen as SEANUTS representative, as it provides most of the countries prevalence and meet our criteria to define VDD.

  • †Data from MyHeARTs, both studies were included because eventhough data were derived from the same study, the time point was different.

  • ‡Data from IPADS, both papers present the same result, Oktaria et al 35 was chosen as it is the first one published.

  • IPADS, The Indonesian Pneumonia and vitamin D study; MyHeARTs, Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Study; n/a, not available; 25(OH)D, 25-hydroxyvitamin D; SEA, South-East Asia; SEANUTS, South-East Asian Nutrition Survey.