Table 1

Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) among children in SEA region (n=30)

StudyYear of studyDesignLocationAge
Quantification methodsPrevalence/Cumulative incidence VDD‡
(50 nmol/L) (%)
Prevalence/Cumulative incidence VDD§
(30 nmol/L)
Mean of serum 25(OH)D (nmol/L)Risk factors associated with VDD
Febriani A et al 69 2019Case-control40Indonesia0.5–5ELISAn/an/a49.77 (control)n/a
Irwinda and Andardi¶57 2017–2019Cross-sectional30IndonesiaNewbornLC-MS/MS52.4n/a44n/a
Chuc et al¶ 22 2017Cross-sectional327Vietnam1–3ELISA47.7081.3Older age
Ariyawatkul and Lersbuasin¶46 2016–2017Cross-sectional94ThailandNewbornChemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay89.320.237.1Low maternal vitamin D level
Oktaria et al ¶††35 2015–2017Cohort344 (at birth)
(6 months)
IndonesiaNewborn and 6 monthsLC-MS/MS90 (at birth)
13 (6 months)
55.8 (at birth)
4.3 (6 months)
30 (at birth)
77 (6 months)
Lower cumulative skin-sun exposure score, severe VDD at birth and exclusive breast feeding
Loeb et al¶ 36 2013–2016RCT (baseline)1095Vietnam3–17Diasorin16.8n/a65.5n/a
Yani et al¶ 24 2014–2015Cross-sectional100Indonesia<5ELISA211.7867.5n/a
Quah et al25 2014Cohort1016Malaysia15Automated direct competitive chemiluminescent immunoassay332.659.4Female sex, Malay and Indian ethnicity, and wearing long sleeves
Smith et al¶ 51 2014Cross-sectional781Cambodia0.5–5ELISA13.4n/a91.1Urban living and older age
Diana et al¶ 26 2013–2014Cohort116Indonesia6 and 12 monthsIsotope-dilution LC tandem MS0.9 (6 months)
4.3 (12 months)
0 (6 months and 12 months)89.7† (6 months)
83.2† (12 months)
Al-Sadat et al44 2012Cross-sectional1361Malaysia12–13ECLIA92.6n/a29.2Female sex, Indian ethnicity, urban living and obesity (wider waist circumference)
Rahmadhani et al45 2012Cross-sectional678Malaysia13ECLIA70n/a42.3Female sex, high BMI
Pulungan et al¶ 54 2012Cross-sectional120Indonesia7–12Diasorin39.21.654.6Less time spent outdoors
Nguyen et al 50 2012–2016Cross-sectional794Vietnam6–14HPLC/MS30.6n/a67.39Female sex, overweight/obese
Poh et al¶37 2010–2011Cross-sectional2016Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam>2Diasorin (Malaysia, Thailand), HPLC (Vietnam), immunoactivity detection system (Indonesia)42.14n/a56.1Female sex, older age, urban living, religion, higher BMI and region
Senaprom et al39 2011Cross-sectional477Thailand3–13Diasorin31.9n/a60.1Female sex, Muslim religion, obesity, sun exposure <30 min/day in weekdays (end)
Ernawati and Budiman et al40 2011Cross-sectional349Indonesia2–13EIA45.1n/a52.6Female sex, older age, less time spent outdoors
Reesukumal et al¶28 2011–2012Cross-sectional159Thailand6–12ECLIA19.50.664Higher BMI, higher body fat percentage, higher parathyroid hormone
Sandjaja et al33 2011Cross-sectional276Indonesia2–12Not specified43.6n/a52.5Female sex
Rojroongwasinkul et al38 2011Cross-sectional628Thailand3–13Diasorin33.5n/an/aUrban living
Le Nguyen et al29 2011Cross-sectional574Vietnam6–12HPLC50.4n/an/an/a
Nguyen Bao et al30 2010–2011Cross-sectional384Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam1–12Diasorin (Malaysia, Thailand), HPLC (Vietnam), immunoactivity detection system (Indonesia)45.817.555.7Higher dairy daily consumption
Poh et al27 2010–2011Cross-sectional2936Malaysia4–12Diasorin47.5n/a54.7Female sex, urban living, older age
Laillou et al¶ 43 2010Cross-sectional485Vietnam<5HPLC57.320.643.4n/a
Poomthavorn et al¶ 31 2008–2009Cross-sectional179Thailand<18HPLC11 (obese)
10 (non-obese)
0 (obese and non-obese)70.4 (obese)
68.9 (non-obese)
Older age, lower weight circumference
Khor et al¶ 42 2008Cross-sectional402Malaysia7–12Diasorin72.4n/an/aHigher BMI in boys, female sex
Houghton et al¶ 49 2002–2003Cross-sectional529Thailand6–14LC-MS/MS4n/a72.7†Older female
Tangngam et al¶ 47 n/aCross-sectional28Thailand4.8–17.2Chemiluminescence assay96.4n/a66.5**n/a
Soesanti et al¶ 34 n/aCross-sectional120Indonesia7–12Not specified39.2n/an/aFemale sex
Hussain and Elnajeh¶32 n/aCross-sectional361Malaysia13–18CLIA60.116.349Female sex, Malay ethnicity
  • VDD was defined when serum 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L20

  • *Data from MyHeARTs, both studies were included because eventhough data were derived from the same study, the time point was different.

  • †Geometric mean.

  • ‡Data from SEANUTS. Poh et al 37 was chosen as SEANUTS representative, as it provides most of the countries prevalence and meet our criteria to define VDD.

  • §Total participants that had vitamin D testing.

  • ¶Included in the forest plot.

  • **Median.

  • ††Data from IPADS, both papers present the same result, Oktaria et al 35 was chosen as it is the first one published.

  • BMI, body mass index; ECLIA, electrochemiluminescence immunoassay; EIA, enzyme immunoassay; HPLC, high performance liquid chromatograph; IPADS, The Indonesian Pneumonia and vitamin D Study; LC-MS/MS, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry; MyHeARTs, Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Study; n/a, not available; 25(OH)D, 25-hydroxyvitamin D; RCT, randomised controlled trial; SEA, South-East Asia; SEANUTS, South-East Asian Nutrition Survey.