Table 2

The Newcastle–Ottawa Scale for assessment of cohort studies

StudiesSelectionComparabilityOutcomeScore
Representativeness of the exposed cohortSelection of the non-exposed cohortAscertainment of exposureDemonstration that outcome of interest was not present at start of studyComparability of cohorts on the basis of the design or analysisAssessment of outcomeWas follow-up long enough for outcomes to occurAdequacy of follow-up of cohorts
Darius 201422 ********8
Haseli 201323 *******7
Heaton 200824 *******7
Julka 201425 ********8
Kasahara 202126 *********9
Lee 201627 ********8
Li 201828 *******7
Mohan 201729 *********9
Montenovo 201830 *******7
Nikeghbalian 200931 *******7
Oh 201032 *******7
Pan 202033 ********8
Tannuri 201134 *******7
Zhang 201835 ********8