Table 1

General population screening for type 1 diabetes (T1D) according to modified Wilson and Jungner criteria

Modified Wilson and Jungner classic screening criteriaYesNoUncertainComments
1. The condition sought should be an important health problem.
2. The target population for screening should be clearly defined and able to be reached.Ages for testing need to be agreed
3. There should be an accepted treatment or course of action for patients who test positive that results in improved outcomes.Need to define follow-up for both multiple and single IAb positive
Need of T1D preventive treatments
4. Facilities for diagnosis and treatment should be available.Implementation in routine laboratories needed
5. There should be a recognisable latent or early symptomatic stage.
6. There should be a suitable test or examination with appropriate performance characteristics.Test performance needs validation on population level
7. The test should be acceptable to the population.Will need testing in individual countries and communities
8. The screening test results should be clearly interpretable.Double IAb positive defined
Single IAb positive result not fully established
9. The natural history of the condition, including development from latent to declared disease, should be adequately understood.
10.The cost of case finding (including diagnosis and treatment of patients diagnosed) should be economically balanced in relation to possible expenditure on medical care as a whole.UK-specific cost-effectiveness needs to be tested
11.The overall benefit of the programme should outweigh its harms.More data needed on benefits and harm
12.Case finding should be a continuing process and not a ‘once and for all’ project, with ongoing monitoring and development of the programme.National screening programmes embedded in clinical care are required