Table 1

Summary of main patient and operative characteristics

Author (year) countryStudy designN (male: female)CHD diagnosis
1V 2V TGA AC OL
Gestational age at birth (weeks)Age at surgery (days)Age at preoperative MRI (days)Age at postoperative MRI
McConnel (1990) USA28Cohort (pro)15 (NR)1NR1112NRNRNRNR
Mahle (2002) USA12Cohort (pro)24 (16:8)1311NRNRNR39.4 (36.0, 41.1)4 (1, 24)Day of surgery8.5 (5–12) days after surgery
Late scan: 4.5 (3–6) months
Partridge (2006) USA13Cohort (pro)25 (16:9)3NR1813
  • No brain injury: 39.6 (37.7–41) days

  • Preop injury: 39.3 (36.3–39.6)

  • Postop injury:39.3 (38–41)

≤6No brain injury:6 (2, 36)
  • Preop injury: 4 (2, 13)

  • Postop injury: 3.5 (1, 7)

  • No brain injury: 16 (12–56) days

  • Preop injury: 20 (16–36)

  • Postop injury: 18.5 (14–43)

Dent (2006) USA18Cohort (pro)22 (15:7)22NRNRNRNR39 (36–41)4 (1, 8)Operation day
4 (1, 8)
9.5 (5–14) days
McQuillen (2007) USA14Cohort (pro)62 (NR)181232NRNRNRNR
  • No brain injury: 5.5

  • With brain injury: 5

  • No brain injury: 18.5

  • With brain injury: 19

Miller (2007) USA19Case-control (pro)41 (29:12)12NR29NRNR39.1 (38.2–40.0)NR5 (3–6)NR
Block (2010) USA15Cohort (pro)92 (59:33)62NR30NRNR
  • At UBC: 39 (38–40)

  • At UCSF: 39 (38–40)

  • With preop injury: 9 (7–11)

  • No preop injury: 7 (5–11)

5 (3–7)21 (16–27)
Kwak (2010) Korea29Cohort (pro)11 (10:1)NRNRNR11NRNR11 (5, 46).NRNR
Beca (2013) New Zealand16Cohort (pro)153 (98:55)7281NRNRNR38.8±1.67 (4–11)NR
  • Early MRI≈7 days after surgery

  • Late MRI≈ 3 months of age

Drury (2013) New Zealand30Cohort (pro)18 (11:7)NRNRNR18NR
  • DHCA: 39 (37, 41)

  • No DHCA: 40 (39–41)

NRNRNR
Mulkey (2013) USA9Cohort (retro)73 (46:27)NRNRNRNR73
  • No brain injury: 39 (38–39)

  • With brain injury: 38 (37–39)

  • No brain injury:7 (4–10)

  • With brain injury: 8 (4–12)

No brain injury: 4 (2–10)
With brain injury: 8 (4–13)
46±41
Algra (2014) The Netherlands23RCT37 (30:7)1252117
  • No new WMI: 39.5 (37.6–41.0)

  • New WMI: 39.0 (35.3–41.0)

  • No new WMI: 9 (8, 15)

  • New WMI: 9 (5, 34)

8 (4, 34)
  • No new WMI: 6 days2 27

  • New WMI: 7 (2–12)

Andropoulos (2014) USA20Cohort (retro)59 (34:25)271220NRNR38.4±1.2NRNRNR
Bertholdt (2014) Switzerland21Case-control (pro)30 (22:8)8NR22NRNR39.3 (36.7–41.9)NR6 (1, 12)13 (6–30)
Lynch (2014) USA24Cohort (pro)37 (18: 19)37NRNRNRNR38.9±0.84.2±1.9NR1 week after surgery
Claessens (2018) The Netherlands17Cohort (pro)40 (27:13)16NR12210
  • CSVT negative:39.1 (38.8–40.1)

  • CSVT positive:39.3 (37.6–40.4)

  • CSVT negative:9 (8–15)

  • CSVT positive:

9 (7–10)
  • CSVT negative:7 (6–12)

  • CSVT positive:6 (4–8)

CSVT negative:
6 (5–8)
CSVT positive: 7 (6–9)
Peyvandi (2018) USA31Cohort (pro)79 (55:24)30NR49NRNR
  • d-TGA: 39.2 (38.8–39.6) *

  • HLHS: 38.9 (38.4–39.3) *

  • d-TGA: 8 (5.5–11)

  • HLHS: 8 (6–11)

  • d-TGA: 5 (3–6)

  • HLHS: 5 (3–6)

  • d-TGA: 17.5 (15–25)

  • HLHS: 2420–30

Claessens (2019) The Netherlands26Cohort (pro)74 (49:25)17NR26NR3139.5 (38.7–40.6)NR5 (3–7)8 (7–10)
Claessens (2019) The Netherlands22Cohort (pro)124 (92:32)331477NRNR
  • HSC: 39.1 (38.1–39.9)

  • WKZ: 39.4 (38.7–40.4)

-≤60 days
  • HSC: 4 (2–5)

  • WKZ: 5 (3–7)

  • HSC: 127–18

  • WKZ: 7 (7–10)

Lim (2019) Canada27Cohort (pro)45 (NR)NRNR45NRNR39 (35–41)
  • Early repair: 7 (3, 13)

  • Late repair 17 (14, 54

5 (1, 26)21 (4–70)
Guo (2019) USA25Cohort (pro)216 (144:72)64NR118NR34
  • UBC: 39 (38–40)

  • UCSF: 39 (38–40)

  • UCZ: 39.2 (38.8–40.1)

≤3 months40 weeks (38.6–41.2)41.9 weeks (40.5–43.2)
Total127744713548134180
  • Age and time values presented as median (IQR) or median (min, max), median, mean±SD, mean (95% CI)* NR.

  • AC, aorta coarctation; ACP, antegrade cerebral perfusion; DHCA, deep hypothermic circulate; HSC, Hospital for Sick Children Toronto; NR, not reported; TGA, transposition of the great arteries; 1V, single ventricle abnormalities; 2V, two-ventricle abnormalities; WKZ, Wilhelmina Children’s Hospital Utrecht.