Table 2

Household, maternal and child characteristics of the 12 126 children in the analytic sample

Mean (±SD, range) or proportion
Household characteristics
 Size7.78 (±4.36, 3–56)
 Lives in rural area70.64
 Is in poorest wealth quintile26.00
 Access to an improved water source
  Has access30.38
  Does not have access66.44
 Has access to improved sanitation29.28
Mother characteristics
 Age, years29.35 (±5.88, 16–49)
 Highest level of education
  No education42.47
  Primary education33.96
  Secondary or higher education23.57
 Married or cohabitating95.73
Child characteristics
 Age, months47.12 (±6.79, 36–59)
 Cognitive development off-track23.75
 Socioemotional development off-track32.05
 Literacy-numeracy development off-track86.55
 Physical development off-track10.76
 Overall development off-track14.13
 Early Childhood Development Index Score (0–10)4.99 (±1.80, 0–10)
 Child diet in the last 24 hours
  Consumed grains, white roots or tubers54.95
  Consumed legumes or nuts23.00
  Consumed eggs12.87
  Consumed flesh foods32.69
  Consumed dairy11.99
  Consumed vitamin A-rich fruits and vegetables36.58
  Consumed other fruits and vegetables16.46
  Dietary diversity score (0–7)1.88 (±1.79, 0–7)
  Met minimum dietary diversity (≥4 food groups)18.18
  Consumed animal source foods38.32
 Number of stimulation activities received in the past 3 days (range 0–6)3.21 (±2.05, 0–6)
 Received adequate stimulation in the past 3 days (≥4 activities)49.67
 Child attends an early childhood education programme16.50