Table 1
Sickle cell anaemia: existing disparities between HICs and LMICs
Embedded ImageHICs
NBS, early diagnosis and comprehensive care available
LMICs
NBS, early diagnosis and comprehensive care not commonplace.
Late presentation with acute SCD complications and high mortality.
Disease-modifying therapies more availableDisease-modifying treatments (hydroxyurea and chronic blood transfusions) not widely available or affordable
Racial inequalities exist in high-resource settings relating to:
  • access to primary and specialised care

  • barriers to receiving pain treatment

SCD diagnosis and care not linked to primary care, and limited numbers of SCD centres in district hospitals
Fewer health workers with knowledge and expertise in SCD managementLack of universal health coverage for SCD diagnosis and treatment
Challenges with transition from paediatric to adult careInadequate public awareness about SCD and the effective interventions available
  • HICs, high-income countries; LMICs, low-income and middle-income countries; NBS, newborn screening; SCD, sickle cell disease.