Table 3

App commercial feature evaluation results

StudyResults of commercial feature assessment
Total number of apps sampled% of sampled apps with in-app purchases% of sample apps with advertisementsAdvertisement-related analyses
Biviji et al 40 2918%51%
Brown et al 42 5143%
Chen et al 44 220%9%
Cheng et al 24 4726%
Davis et al 45 4613%
Furlong et al 46 13233%
Liu et al 22 67 77822%Potential for advertisements in 53%
Meyer et al 23 13546%95%Apps included commercial characters (42%), full-app teasers (46%), advertisements that interrupted gameplay (35%), distracting banners (17%) or camouflaged advertisements (7%). Advertisements more prevalent in free apps.
Richardson et al 52 186%17%
Sardi et al 21 4832%
Schoeppe et al 54 2524%
Virani et al 58 1619%50%
Wisniewski et al 61 7524%
Womack et al 62 4863%
Zarnowiecki et al 63 450%25%
Zhao et al 25 2646%85%Most apps (77%) promoted infant formula
Zhao et al 26 45195%Advertisements coded as being related to formula for premature infants, term infants, toddlers and older children including in circumstances where potentially harmful or unnecessary to health