Table 1

Study and associated app sample characteristics

First author and yearCountry of originReported designFunding source(s)Target userTargeted user characteristicsApp stores searchedApp store search date(s)Method for app samplingApp sample numberApp sample language restrictionChildren’s app content
Biviji et al 39 USAReview and content analysisNoneParentsPregnant people, future parents, other caregivers of infantsApple App and Google PlayNot reportedScraping software29EnglishPregnancy or early childhood health education or user decision-making support functions
Biviji et al 40 USACross-sectional reportCombinationParentsParents-to-be, other caregivers of infantsApple App and Google PlayMarch 2017Scraping software421EnglishPregnancy or early childhood health education or user decision-making support function
Bland et al 41 UKContent analysisCombinationParentsPregnant peopleApple App and Google PlayNovember 2018Keyword29EnglishPregnancy-specific nutritional support functions
Brown et al 42 AustraliaReviewNoneParentsPregnant peopleApple AppOctober 2017Keyword51EnglishNutrition or dietary information
Bry et al 43 USASystematic evaluationNot reportedParents or childrenChildren with anxiety, parents of a children with anxietyApple App and Google PlayFebruary 2016Keyword121EnglishAnxiety-related symptom treatment or management
Chen et al 44 USASystematic reviewFor-profitChildrenAdolescents and young adults who are sexually activeApple App and Google PlayJuly 2015Keyword22EnglishPregnancy prevention information
Cheng et al 24 AustraliaSystematic evaluationNot reportedParentsParents of infants up to 1 yearApple App and Google PlaySeptember 2018 to January 2019Keyword47EnglishMilk feeding behaviours, solid food feeding behaviours or infant activity information
Das et al 20 USAContent analysisGovernmentChildrenChildren or adolescents under the age of 18Apple App and Google PlayMarch 2016Store-reported highly ranked apps64Not reportedAll app content types included
Davis et al 45 USAContent analysisNot reportedParentsNew parentsApple App2016Keyword46EnglishParenting, infant health or child health information
Furlong et al 46 AustraliaSystematic reviewGovernmentChildrenChildren up to 12 years old with a speech disorderApple App and Google PlayNovember 2016 to May 2017Keyword132EnglishIncludes tasks that require production of speech by user
Hotwani et al 47 IndiaContent analysisNot reportedParents or childrenAll childrenApple AppNot reportedKeyword6EnglishTooth brushing promoting functions
Hswen et al 48 USAContent analysisNot reportedChildrenChildren aged 4 and olderApple AppMarch 2012Store-reported highly ranked apps20Not reportedAll app content types included
Liu et al 22 USANot reportedGovernmentChildrenAll childrenGoogle PlayApril 2015Classifier software67 778Not reportedAll app content types included
Meyer et al 23 USAContent analysisUniversityChildrenChildren less than 5 years oldGoogle PlayDecember 2017 to March 2017Store-reported highly ranked apps135Not reportedAll app content types included
Mousavi et al 49 IranSystematic reviewNoneParents or childrenAll parents or childrenApple App and Google PlayDecember 2017Keyword4EnglishHealth monitoring, health decision support and diagnosis support functions
Musgrave et al 50 AustraliaSystematic reviewUniversityParentsPregnant peopleApple App and Google PlayNovember 2017 to October 2019Store-reported highly ranked apps10EnglishGeneral pregnancy information
Quinn et al 51 USANot reportedNoneChildrenChildren preschool and/or kindergarten ageApple App and Google PlayNot reportedKeyword472EnglishHandwriting, spelling and/or composing training
Reyes et al 18 MultipleContent analysisCombinationChildrenChildren less than 13 years oldGoogle PlayNovember 2016 to March 2018Scraping software5855EnglishAll app content types included
Richardson et al 52 CanadaSystematic reviewGovernmentParentsParents of children in the NICU (inclusive of guardians, additional family or individuals that provide care to infants in the NICU)Apple App and Google Play2017Keyword18EnglishInformation or support functions for parents of infants in NICUs
Robinson et al 53 USAContent analysisGovernmentChildrenSmoking adolescents attempting to quitApple App and Google PlayNovember 2016Keyword46Not reportedSmoking cessation education
Sardi et al 21 MultipleSystematic reviewGovernmentParentsPostpartum womenApple App and Google PlayJanuary 2019Keyword48EnglishPostnatal care support functions for the mother and/or newborn
Schoeppe et al 54 AustraliaSystematic reviewCombinationChildrenAll children and adolescentsApple App and Google PlayMay 2016 to November 2016Keyword25EnglishDiet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour improvement functions
Schoffman et al 55 USASystematic evaluationNoneChildrenChildren and adolescents with obesityApple App and web searchJune 2012Keyword57EnglishWeight loss/healthy eating/physical activity support functions
Sidhu et al 56 USAContent analysisGovernmentParentsBreastfeeding mothers of infants 0–6 monthsApple App and Google PlayAugust 2017 and October 2017Keyword41EnglishBreastfeeding education or breastfeeding experience tracking
Taki et al 57 AustraliaSystematic evaluationGovernmentParentsParents of infants up to 1 yearApple App and Google PlayDecember 2013, March 2014, and December 2014Keyword46EnglishHealthy milk or solid food feeding behaviour information
Virani et al 58 CanadaReviewNot reportedParentsAll parentsGoogle PlayJune 1 2018Keyword16EnglishParenting information and support functions
Weber et al 59 USAReviewGovernmentParentsParticipants in a special supplemental nutrition programme for women, infants, and childrenApple App and Google PlayDecember 2017 to June 2018Keyword17Not reportedRelating to the supplemental nutrition programme from women, infants and children
Weekly et al 60 USAReviewNot reportedParents or childrenPalliative paediatric patients, caregivers of palliative paediatric patientsApple App, Google Play and Blackberry World AppMay 2017 to July 2017Keyword and expert referral16English and SpanishMindfulness, relaxation or distraction education or training
Wisniewski et al 61 USASystematic evaluationGovernmentParents or childrenAll parents or childrenGoogle PlayApril 2016 to May 2016Keyword75Not reportedAdolescent online safety functions
Womack et al 62 USAContent analysisNot reportedParentsPregnant peopleApple App and Google PlayNovember 2015Keyword48EnglishPregnancy information
Zarnowiecki et al 63 AustraliaSystematic reviewNot-for-profitParents or childrenParents of children under 15, children under 15Apple App and web searchOctober 2018 to November 2018Keyword4Not reportedMeal planners, shopping list or lunchbox functions
Zhao et al 25 AustraliaComprehensive assessment and exploratory qualitative researchUniversityParentsParents of infants and young childrenApple App and 360 Android Mobile AssistantApril 2016Keyword26Accessible in simplified Chinese charactersHealthy infant feeding provision functions
Zhao et al 26 AustraliaNot reportedNot reportedParentsMothers of children 3 years of age and less or mothers-to-be360 Android Mobile AssistantFebruary 2018Store-reported highly ranked apps79Accessible in simplified Chinese charactersPregnancy and early parenting information or support functions
Zhao et al 19 USAProspective cohort studyCombinationChildrenChildren aged 3–5 yearsGoogle PlayAugust 1 2019 to November 1 2019Parent list of used apps451Not reportedAll app content types included
  • NICU, neonatal intensive care unit.