Table 3

Univariate analysis of clinical and radiographic findings and injury type using Fisher’s exact test

All accidents n=210Minor accidents n=100*Major accidents n=82*Abuse n=17All accidents versus abuse
OR (95% CI),
p value
Minor accidents versus abuse
OR (95% CI),
p value
Major accidents versus abuse
OR (95% CI),
p value
Minor versus major accidents
OR (95% CI),
p value
Any extra-axial haemorrhage† 73/210 (34.8%)34/100 (34.0%)32/82 (17.6%)13/17 (76.5%) 0.16 (0.04 to 0.56), 0.001 0.16 (0.04 to 0.57), 0.002 0.20 (0.04 to 0.72), 0.007 0.81 (0.42 to 1.55), 0.54
Epidural 27/210 (12.9%)13/100 (13.0%)13/82 (15.9%)2/17 (11.8%)1.11 (0.24 to 10.50), 1.01.12 (0.22 to 11.22), 1.01.41 (0.27 to 14.16), 1.00.79 (0.32 to 1.99), 0.67
Subdural 54/210 (25.7%)23/100 (23.0%)25/82 (30.5%)13/17 (76.5%) 0.11 (0.02 to 0.37),<0.0001 0.09 (0.02 to 0.34),<0.0001 0.14 (0.03 to 0.50), 0.001 0.68 (0.33 to 1.40), 0.31
Subdural localised to fracture 38/210 (18.1%)18/100 (18.0%)15/82 (18.3%)5/17 (29.4%)0.53 (0.16 to 2.04), 0.330.53 (0.15 to 2.16), 0.320.54 (0.15 to 2.26), 0.330.98 (0.43 to 2.26), 1.0
Widespread subdurals 8/210 (3.8%)1/100 (1.0%)7/82 (8.5%)4/17 (23.5%) 0.13 (0.03 to 0.67), 0.007 0.03 (0.00 to 0.38), 0.001 0.31 (0.07 to 1.64), 0.09 0.11 (0.00 to 0.88), 0.02
Multifocal subdurals 8/210 (3.8%)4/100 (4.0%)3/82 (3.7%)5/17 (29.4%) 0.10 (0.02 to 0.44), 0.001 0.10 (0.02 to 0.55), 0.003 0.09 (0.01 to 0.56), 0.003 1.10 (0.18 to 7.71), 1.0
Multifocal or widespread subdurals‡ 16/210 (7.6%)5/100 (5.0%)10/82 (0.12%)8/17 (47.1%) 0.09 (0.03 to 0.32),<0.0001 0.06 (0.01 to 0.26),<0.0001 0.16 (0.04 to 0.59), 0.002 0.38 (0.10 to 1.29), 0.10
Soft tissue swelling on CT 188/210 (0.90%)91/100 (91.0%)74/82 (90.2%)13/17 (76.5%)2.61 (0.57 to 9.49), 0.113.07 (0.60 to 13.17), 0.102.81 (0.54 to 12.50), 0.211.09 (0.35 to 3.37), 1.0
Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS)‡*
14–15185/209 (88.5%)95/99 (96.0%)62/82 (75.6%)11/17 (64.7%)ReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
9–1315/209 (7.2%)3/99 (3.0%)12/82 (14.6%)2/17 (11.8%)0.45 (0.09 to 2.20), 0.320.17 (0.03 to 1.16), 0.071.06 (0.21 to 5.43), 0.94 0.16 (0.04 to 0.60), 0.006
3–89/209 (4.3%)1/99 (1.0%)8/82 (9.8%)4/17 (23.5%) 0.13 (0.04 to 0.50), 0.003 0.03 (0.00 to 0.28), 0.002 0.35 (0.09 to 1.38), 0.14 0.08 (0.01 to 0.67), 0.02
Loss of consciousness 10/197 (5.1%)4/98 (4.1%)6/82 (8.1%)5/16 (31.3%) 0.12 (0.03 to 0.53), 0.002 0.10 (0.02 to 0.52), 0.003 0.20 (0.04 to 0.97), 0.02 0.48 (0.10 to 2.13), 0.33
  • Some totals may not sum due to unknown or missing data.

  • Significant comparisons are bolded.

  • Minor injury=short falls (<4 ft), running into or bumping objects and children struck by low mass objects.

  • Major injury=falls ≥4 ft, motor vehicle trauma, crush events from falling furniture, children hit with high mass objects.

  • *Twenty-eight of the 210 accidental trauma subjects excluded from analysis due to insufficient trauma history/fall height.

  • †Some subjects had both SDH and EDH.

  • ‡Some subjects had haemorrhages that were both widespread and multifocal.

  • §GCS analysis performed using univariate logistic regression.

  • EDH, epidural haemorrhage; SDH, subdural haemorrhage.