Table 2

Classification, management and outcomes of children aged 2–59 months presenting to central hospitals in Vientiane, Lao PDR with pneumonia (n=594)

Pneumonia without LCI* or general danger signs†, n(%)Pneumonia with LCI* but without general danger signs‡, n(%)Pneumonia with general danger signs§, n(%)
Pneumonia category, n (%)427 (71.9)87 (14.6)80 (13.5)
Classification¶, n (col %)
Classified as non-severe pneumonia427 (100.0)**74 (85.1)††46 (57.5)‡‡
Classified as severe pneumonia0 (0.0)‡‡13 (14.9)§§34 (42.5)**
Management, n (col %)
Admitted to hospital13 (3.0)‡‡75 (86.2)§§64 (80.0)**
Treated as outpatient414 (97.0)**12 (13.8)††16 (20.0)‡‡
Outcome at follow-up phone call¶¶, n (col %)
Better326 (76.3%)64 (73.6%)51 (63.8%)
Still unwell***27 (6.3%)5 (5.7%)6 (7.5%)
Died0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)2 (2.5%)
Unable to contact74 (17.3%)18 (20.7%)21 (26.2%)
  • Pneumonia (2005) defined as: cough or dyspnoea, and tachypnoea (>50 breaths per minute (bpm) if 2–11 months old; or >40 bpm if 12–59 months old). Pneumonia (2014) defined as: cough or dyspnoea, and one of either tachypnoea or chest indrawing. Severe pneumonia (2005 and 2014) defined as: criteria for pneumonia, plus either central cyanosis, or oxygen saturation <90% in room air, severe respiratory distress, inability to drink, lethargy, unconsciousness or convulsions.

  • *Lower chest indrawing.

  • †Non-severe pneumonia as per 2005 and 2014 WHO pneumonia definitions.

  • ‡Non-severe pneumonia as per 2014 WHO pneumonia definition (as above). Severe pneumonia as per 2005 definition.

  • §Severe pneumonia as per 2005 and 2014 WHO pneumonia definitions.

  • ¶As per treating doctor.

  • **Consistent with 2005 and 2014 WHO pneumonia definitions.

  • ††Consistent with 2014 WHO pneumonia definition.

  • ‡‡Inconsistent with 2005 and 2014 WHO pneumonia definitions.

  • §§Consistent with 2005 WHO pneumonia definition.

  • ¶¶Follow-up phone call planned for 2 weeks following initial presentation. Median time for follow-up phone call 21 days (IQR 16–29).

  • ***One or more of the following symptoms: dry cough, productive cough, difficulty breathing, lethargy, inability to drink, vomiting or convulsions.

  • Lao PDR, Lao People’s Democratic Republic; LCI, lower chest wall indrawing.