Table 4

Aggregate age-appropriateness for APIs of: (A) antituberculosis medicines, (B) antiretrovirals and (C) Access, Watch, and Reserve (AWARE) classification of antibiotics in the EMLc 2019

AAntituberculosis medicinesNITYCOC
1Amoxicillin+clavulanic acid33333
2Bedaquiline*
3Clofazimine11113
4Cycloserine00112
5Delamanid†
6Ethambutol03333
7Ethionamide33333
8Isoniazid02333
9Isoniazid+pyrazinamide+rifampicin†
10Isoniazid+rifampicin†
11Levofloxacin‡
12Linezolid33232
13Moxifloxacin‡
14p‐Aminosalicylic acid00113
15Pyrazinamide03333
16Rifampicin03333
17Rifapentine†
B Antiretrovirals§
1Abacavir33333
2Abacavir+lamivudine†
3Atazanavir00002
4Darunavir†
5Dolutegravir*
6Efavirenz00012
7Lamivudine33333
8Lamivudine+nevirapine+zidovudine33333
9Lamivudine+zidovudine33333
10Lopinavir+ritonavir02333
11Nevirapine33333
12Raltegravir33333
13Ritonavir02333
14Zidovudine33333
C AWARE categorisation of antibiotics
Access
1Amoxicillin33333
2Amoxicillin+clavulanic acid33333
3Cefalexin03333
4Chloramphenicol03333
5Clindamycin33333
6Cloxacillin33333
7Doxycycline00003
8Metronidazole33333
9Nitrofurantoin02333
10Phenoxymethylpenicillin33333
11Sulfamethoxazole+trimethoprim02333
Watch
1Azithromycin33333
2Cefixime33333
3Ciprofloxacin33333
4Clarithromycin23333
5Vancomycin01111
Reserve
1Linezolid33233
  • *Licensed for use only from 12 years in the BNFc, 2019.

  • †No dose information in the EMLc 2019, hence omitted from evaluation.

  • ‡Not licensed/listed for oral use in the BNFc because of the risk of tendon rupture, thus, omitted.

  • §With antiretrovirals, and antituberculosis, medicines, changes to the EMLc 2019 saw about a 50% increase in the inclusion of FSOD. Thus, the age-appropriate formulations include liquids, FSODs or both.

  • API, active pharmaceutical ingredient; BNFc, British National Formulary for Children; FSOD, flexible solid oral dosage; I, infants; N, neonates; OC, older children; T, toddlers; YC, young children.