Table 1

GRADE summary of findings

Effect of asthma education on health outcomes in children
Patient or population: children with asthma
Setting: USA, France, Spain
Intervention: asthma education
Comparison: not receiving asthma education
OutcomesAnticipated absolute effects*
(95% CI)
Relative effect
(95% CI)
No of participants (studies)Quality of the evidence
Risk in controlRisk in experiment
Risk of hospitalisation814 per 1000360 per 1000RR 0.46
(0.32 to 0.66)
Risk of ED visits1462 per 1000864 per 1000RR 0.69
(0.59 to 0.81)
Risk of clinic visits1043 per 10001004 per 1000RR 0.79
(0.67 to 0.97)
  • GRADE Working Group grades of evidence:

  • High quality: we are very confident that the true effect lies close to that of the estimate of the effect.

  • Low quality: our confidence in the effect estimate is limited. The true effect may be substantially different from the estimate of the effect.

  • Very low quality: we have very little confidence in the effect estimate. The true effect is likely to be substantially different from the estimate of effect.

  • *The risk in the intervention group (and its 95% CI) is based on the assumed risk in the comparison group and the relative effect of the intervention (and its 95% CI).

  • ED, emergency department; GRADE, Grades of Recommendation, Assessment,Development,and Evaluation; RR, risk ratio.