Table 1

Baseline characteristics of all 110 patients admitted with paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS)

VariableStudy sample (n=110)Missing data
Demographics
Median age, years (IQR)10.2 (7.6–12.6)0
Male (%)63 (57)0
Ethnicity
 Black/African/Caribbean/black British (%)39 (35)0
 Asian/Asian British (%)33 (30)
 White (%)19 (17)
 Mixed/multiple ethnic groups (%)12 (12)
 Other (%)7 (6)
Median height, cm (IQR)143 (125–160)11
Median BMI centile (IQR)88 (47–97)25
Median number of days admitted8 (6–11)0
Comorbidities*6 (5%)0
SARS-CoV-2 status
SARS CoV-2 RT-PCR positive (%)33 (30)0
Serology positive (%)105 (95)0
Symptoms on admission
Fever (%)110 (100)0
Rhinitis (%)1 (1)1
Respiratory distress (%)32 (29)0
Cough (%)9 (8)0
Abdominal pain (%)80 (72)0
Diarrhoea (%)65 (59)0
Vomiting (%)66 (60)0
Admission blood parameters
Median triglyceride peak, mmol/L (IQR)2.98 (1.92–3.9)3
Median ferritin peak, μg/L (IQR)831 (472–1834)0
Median CRP peak, mg/L (IQR)281 (206–328)0
Median IL-6 peak, pg/L (IQR)111 (50–324)53
Median D-dimer peak, ng/mL (IQR)2736 (1405–5723)0
Median NT-proBNP peak, pg/mL (IQR)13 392 (4694–29628)4
Median troponin, ng/L (IQR)153 (60–387)0
Median sodium nadir, mmol/L (IQR)133 (131–135)0
Median phosphate nadir, mmol/L (IQR)0.83 (0.67–0.96)0
Median lymphocyte nadir, 109/L (IQR)0.82 (0.52–1.2)0
Median albumin nadir, g/L (IQR)25 (23–27)1
Renal parameters
Admission AKI status
 No AKI (%)77 (70)0
 Stage 1 AKI (%)13 (12)
 Stage 2 AKI (%)8 (7)
 Stage 3 AKI (%)12 (11)
Urine albumin/creatinine ratio, mg/mmol (IQR)3.3 (1.8–7)51
Urine RBP/creatinine ratio, μg/mmol (IQR)354 (96–3000)97
Urine NAG/creatinine ratio, U/mmol (IQR)233 (82–370)97
Median creatinine peak, μmol/L (IQR)68 (48–104)0
Median urea peak, mmol/L (IQR)6.7 (5.2–11)0
Median eGFR nadir, mL/min/1.73m2 (IQR)79 (51–100)9
Dipstick proteinuria (%)8 (7)33
Dipstick haematuria (%)21 (19)24
Kidney ultrasonography
 Not performed (%)12 (11)0
 Normal (%)66 (60)
 Abnormal† (%)32 (29)
Intensive care
Requiring PICU admission (%)98 (89)0
Median duration of PICU stay, days (IQR)3 (2–5)0
Intubation (%)22 (20)0
Median duration of mechanical ventilation, days (IQR)2 (1–3)0
Inotropic support (IQR)84 (76)0
Median duration of inotropic support, days (IQR)1.7 (1–2)0
Myocardial dysfunction on echocardiography
 None (%)63 (57)0
 Mild (%)30 (27)
 Moderate (%)14 (13)
 Severe (%)3 (3)
Medications
PIMS-TS therapeutic medications
 Methylprednisolone (%)91 (82)0
 IVIG (%)77 (70)0
 Anakinra (%)8 (7)0
 Tocilizumab (%)5 (5)0
 Remdesivir (%)1 (1)0
Median number of nephrotoxic medications (IQR)1 (0–1)0
Nephrotoxic medications
 Vancomycin (%)4 (4)0
 Gentamicin (%)6 (5)0
 Amikacin (%)25 (23)0
 Aciclovir (%)14 (13)0
 Trimethoprim/co-trimoxazole (%)2 (2)0
 NSAIDs (%)27 (25)0
  • Data are n (%) or median (IQR).

  • *Comorbidities were: type 1 diabetes mellitus (n=2), sickle cell disease (n=2) and ventriculoperitoneal shunt for obstructed hydrocephalus (n=2).

  • †Abnormal kidney ultrasonography consisted of: loss of corticomedullary differentiation and/or increased echogenicity, unilaterally or bilaterally enlarged kidneys (>95th centile), unilaterally small kidney (<5th centile), unilateral ectopic kidney, evidence of scarring, duplex collecting system and pelvicalyceal dilatation.

  • AKI, acute kidney injury; BMI, body mass index; CRP, C reactive protein; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; IL-6, interleukin 6; IVIG, intravenous immunoglobulin; NAG, N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase; NSAIDs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; NT-proBNP, N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide; PICU, paediatric intensive care unit; RBP, retinol-binding protein; RT-PCR, reverse transcription PCR.