Table 1

Characteristics of children with SARS-CoV-2 infection and thrombosis from EPICO-AEP cohort (cases 1–4) and from literature review (cases 5–13)

NAgeSexMedical background/risk factorsOther thrombotic risk factorsFamily thrombotic historyThrombotic complicationOther signs/symptomsSARS-CoV-2 RT-PCRSARS-CoV-2 AbsD-dimer (µg/L)Thrombo-prophylaxis*Anticoagulation treatmentThrombophilia work-upOutcome†
14 yearsFemaleSystemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis on treatment with steroids and canakinumabCentral venous catheterNoRight iliac vein thrombosisFever, cough and rhinorrhoeaPositiveNegative5953‡NoLWHNADischarged without sequelae
212 yearsFemaleB cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia on induction chemotherapy and obesityCentral venous catheter and asparaginase treatmentNoThrombosis of the right upper limbDyspnoea and thoracic pain (pulmonary embolism was ruled out)PositiveIgG positive232‡LWHLWHDecreased protein C activity (58%)Discharged without sequelae
313 yearsFemaleNoNoNoLeft common and superficial femoral vein thrombosisFever, hyporexia, headache, asthenia, rash, abdominal pain and vomitingPositiveNA1194‡NoLWH and cava filterLupus anticoagulant positive (remained positive 5 months later)Discharged without sequelae
413 yearsFemaleNoNoNoThrombosis of the transverse sinuses and of the jugular vein, pulmonary embolism and femoral thrombosisFever and odynophagiaPositiveNA35 420‡NoContinuous unfractionated heparin followed by LWHNormalDischarged without sequelae
516 yearsFemaleHomozygous sickle cell diseaseNoNDBilateral pulmonary embolismFever, cough, anosmia, acute chest syndromePositiveND23 611NoYes (not fully described)NDDischarged
65 yearsMaleNoECMONDRight middle cerebral artery infarction, cerebral oedema and diffuse contralateral subarachnoid haemorrhage§Fever, cough, and abdominal pain; cardiogenic shock with cardiopulmonary failureNDPositive15 000YesNDNDBrain dead
72 monthsMaleTracheomalacia requiring tracheostomyECMONDBilateral middle cerebral artery and posterior cerebral artery territory infarction with haemorrhagic transformation§Respiratory failure, pneumomediastinum, and bilateral pneumothoracesNDNegativeNDNDNDNDAdmitted
812 yearsFemaleNoNoNoPopliteal-to-common iliac vein thrombosis and massive pulmonary embolismNoNegativeIgM positive1953NoPercutaneous mechanical venous thrombectomy, thrombolysis and infrahepatic venous filterAntiphospholipid antibodiesDischarged without neurological deficits
916 yearsMaleNDSphenoid sinusitisNDCavernous sinus thrombosis and left middle cerebral artery strokeAseptic meningitis associated with stuporPositiveNDNDNoYes (not fully described)NDDied
1016 yearsMaleNDNDNDDeep venous thrombosis of the lower limbs with pulmonary emboliNDPositiveNDNDNDNDNDND
116 yearsMaleNDNDNDSmall segmental pulmonary emboliMIS-C (fever, hypoxic respiratory failure, abdominal pain)PositiveNDNDNDNDNDND
125 yearsMaleNoECMONDRight anterior and middle cerebral artery ischaemic infarction§MIS-C (fever, vomiting, cough, abdominal pain)NegativePositive18 300HeparinNDNDBrain dead
132 yearsFemaleNoMiliary tuberculosisNDThrombosis of the superior sagittal sinus and the transverse sinuses and cerebral infarction involving the anterior limb of the right internal capsule, lentiform nucleus and thalamusWeakness, lethargy and cervical lymphadenopathyPositiveND14 800NoAspirinNDDischarged with residual left haemiparesis
  • *Thromboprophylaxis before thrombosis diagnosis.

  • †Outcome when this article or the reviewed articles were published.

  • ‡Highest value during the episode.

  • §These cases were supposed to be hypercoagulable manifestations of COVID-19/MIS-C.

  • Abs, antibodies; ECMO, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; LWH, low-weight heparin; MIS-C, multi-inflammatory syndrome related to SARS-CoV-2 in children; NA, not available; ND, not described; RT-PCR, real-time PCR.