Table 5

Maternal factors independently associated with neonatal near-miss and perinatal death from women with infection during pregnancy

VariableNeonatal near-miss
Perinatal death
aOR95% CIp valueaOR95% CIp value
Maternal pre-existing condition*
 Any pre-existing condition1.51.1 to 2.00.023†1.71.0 to 2.80.041†
Severity of maternal infection‡‡
 Less severe infectionrefref
 Infections with complication0.90.6 to 1.40.7161.00.5 to 1.90.904
 Infection-related severe maternal outcome1.50.9 to 2.40.0993.82.0 to 7.1<0.001†
Pregnancy status at the time of infection suspected or confirmed
 Pregnant not in labour1.50.9 to 2.60.1001.70.8 to 3.80.199
 Pregnant in labour1.91.2 to 3.20.011†1.20.5 to 2.90.610
 Postpartum within 24 hours1.50.9 to 2.50.1362.21.0 to 4.70.045†
 Postpartum 24–72 hours1.00.6 to 1.70.9640.90.4 to 2.70.905
 Postpartum more than 72 hoursrefref
Other obstetric complications
 Any complication1.30.9 to 1.80.1041.71.0 to 2.80.055
The final mode of birth
 Vaginal (spontaneous/instrumental)0.90.7 to 1.20.4611.81.1 to 2.90.022†
  • Random effect: country-level variance of the variance component model: 0.3 with 95% CI (0.1 to 0.6) and an intraclass correlation coefficientof 13%.

  • Random effect: country-level variance of the final model: 0.6 with 95% CI (0.3 to 1.2) with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 20%.

  • *Includes anaemia, diabetes, HIV or any disease that required corticotherapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy or transfusion during the pregnancy.

  • †Statistically significant (p<0.05).

  • ‡Infections with complications include an invasive procedure to treat the source of infection (vacuum aspiration, dilatation and curettage, wound debridement, drainage (incision, percutaneous, culdotomy) laparotomy, lavage and other surgery), admission to intensive care or high dependency unit or transfer to another facility. Severe maternal outcome defined as infection-related maternal death or near-miss

  • aOR, adjusted OR for country-level clustering (level 2 in the model), with the country and hospital-level factors (country income level, hospital level of care and number of births in 2016) in the multilevel multinomial logistic regression model.; ICC, intraclass correlation coefficient .