Table 2

Demographic characteristics of the cohort

ZIKV-exposed children (n=68), n (%)ZIKV-unexposed children* (n=63), n (%)χ2P value
Child’s sex0.0210.88
 Males38 (56)36 (57)
 Females30 (44)27 (43)
Household income (monthly Eastern Caribbean dollars)1.870.76
 Under 10005 (7)4 (7)
 1001–20009 (13)10 (17)
 2001–300011 (16)14 (23)
 Over 300010 (15)9 (15)
 Unknown/refused33 (49)23 (38)
Maternal education2.090.72
 Primary11 (16)8 (13)
 Secondary35 (52)35 (58)
 College degree5 (7)4 (7)
 Graduate degree6 (9)2 (3)
 Unknown/refused11 (16)11 (19)
Food security2.790.42
 Food secure27 (40)25 (41)
 Food insecure (moderate)18 (26)21 (35)
 Food insecure (severe)8 (12)7 (12)
 Unknown/refused15 (22)7 (12)
Prematurity4.050.13
 Delivery at >37 weeks gestation53 (78)51 (85)
 Delivery at ≤37 weeks gestation3 (4)5 (8)
 Unknown/refused12 (18)4 (7)
Neonatal complications0.890.64
 No complication48 (71)45 (75)
 Neonatal complications17 (25)14 (23)
 Unknown/refused3 (4)1 (2)
Mean (SD)Mean (SD)t-ValueP value
Gestational age at delivery (in weeks)39.39 (1.67)38.80 (2.60)−1.430.16
Mother’s age at delivery (in years)29.15 (5.85)28.51 (7.13)−0.550.58
Child’s age at outcome (in months)24.65 (1.30)24.61 (0.92)−0.180.86
Child’s head circumference (z-score)†0.56 (0.89)0.53 (0.95)−0.190.85
Child’s weight (z-score)†0.48 (1.06)0.37 (1.19)−0.540.59
Child’s height (z-score)†0.14 (1.05)−0.08 (0.98)−1.150.25
Household CHAOS Scale26.79 (7.72)27.14 (7.72)−0.210.83
Household Social Support Questionnaire38.08 (10.10)35.23 (9.42)−1.390.17
  • *Household variables will sum to n=60, rather than n=63, due to three twin births in unexposed group.

  • †Z-scores were calculated using WHO Child Growth Standards.

  • CHAOS, chaos, order, and hubbub; ZIKV, Zika virus.