Table 4

Developmental delay risk stratification in children with and without prenatal ZIKV exposure

ZIKV exposed (n=68), n (%)ZIKV unexposed (n=63), n (%)χ2Fisher’s exact p value
Cognition
 Low risk of delay*64 (94)61 (97)0.5490.682
 Med to high risk of delay*4 (6)2 (3)
Fine motorNA*NA*
 Low risk of delay*68 (100)63 (100)
 Med to high risk of delay*0 (0)0 (0)
Gross motorNA*NA*
 Low risk of delay*68 (100)63 (100)
 Med to high risk of delay*0 (0)0 (0)
Language0.0031.000
 Low risk of delay*67 (99)62 (98)
 Med to high risk of delay*1 (1)1 (2)
Positive behaviour1.6210.232
 Low risk of delay*55 (81)56 (89)
 Med to high risk of delay*13 (19)7 (11)
Negative behaviour
 Low risk of delay*56 (89)52 (91)0.1820.766
 Med to high risk of delay*7 (11)5 (9)
ZIKV exposed (n=29)ZIKV unexposed
(n=38)
χ2P value
Visual acuity (logMAR)4.4240.035
 Low risk of delay†20 (69)34 (89%)
 Med to high risk of delay†9 (31)4 (11)
ZIKV exposed (n=26)ZIKV unexposed
(n=30)
Contrast sensitivity3.0630.080
 Low risk of delay†20 (77)28 (93)
 Med to high risk of delay†6 (23)2 (7)
  • NA=not applicable because cell sizes were too small to run proportional analyses.

  • *Cut-off scores for classification of delay risk (<10th percentile) in cognition, fine motor, gross motor, and language domains were obtained from the INTER-NDA international standardisation sample.17

  • †Cut-off scores for classification of delays in visual acuity and contrast sensitivity were obtained from the Cardiff standardisation samples.18

  • INTER-NDA, INTERGROWTH-21st Neurodevelopment Assessment; logMAR, logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution; ZIKV, Zika virus.