Table 4

Effect of rural residence on absolute differences in vaccination coverage

Age groupVaccineEffect on vaccination proportions (betas)*95% CI
<12 monthsBCG0.4530.218 to 0.689
Hepatitis B0.4900.248 to 0.732
IPV0.3610.156 to 0.565
OPV+IPV0.2690.062 to 0.476
Penta first dose0.3680.173 to 0.562
Penta second dose0.3880.192 to 0.584
Penta third dose0.2900.089 to 0.491
Rota first dose0.3730.182 to 0.563
Rota second dose0.3590.163 to 0.555
Pneumococcal first dose0.3320.139 to 0.524
Pneumococcal second dose0.3870.189 to 0.586
12–23 monthsMMR0.142−0.048 to 0.334
Varicella0.208−0.007 to 0.423
Pneumococcal reinf0.167−0.031 to 0.366
Hepatitis A0.162−0.040 to 0.366
Yellow fever0.120−0.083 to 0.325
OPV first reinf0.103−0.082 to 0.290
DPT first reinf0.126−0.059 to 0.312
5 yearsMMR reinf0.2530.057 to 0.449
OPV second reinf0.2240.016 to 0.433
DPT second reinf0.2840.083 to 0.485
  • *Multilevel model effects clustering by region. States were the unit of analysis.

  • DPT, diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus; IPV, inactivated polio vaccine; MMR, measles, mumps and rubella; OPV, oral polio vaccine; Penta, pentavalent vaccine; Reinf, reinforcement; Rota, rotavirus.