Table 1

Characteristics and laboratory values of the children admitted to the PICU in the Helsinki University Hospital for newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes during the pandemic period 1 April to 31 October 2020, and the corresponding periods in 2016–2019

Prepandemic period
2016–2019
(n=25)
Pandemic period
2020
(n=20)
P value
Number of patients per study period, n6.25*20
Incidence, per 100 000 person-years (95% CI)2.89 (1.95–4.27)9.35 (6.03–14.49)0.0001
Age, median (IQR), years9.5 (6.2–11.4)10.0 (8.1–12.3)0.42
Female sex, n (%)10 (40)9 (45)0.77
Previously healthy, n (%)†20 (83)15 (75)0.71
Duration of symptoms, n (%)
 <7 days5 (20)2 (10)0.09
 7–13 days8 (32)5 (25)
 14–20 days7 (28)2 (10)
 21–27 days03 (15)
 ≥28 days5 (20)8 (40)
Altered level of consciousness, n (%)7 (28)4 (20)0.73
Severe DKA (blood pH <7.10), n (%)19 (76)15 (75)1.00
Laboratory values
pH, median (IQR)7.05 (6.97–7.10)7.02 (6.91–7.13)0.37
β-hydroxybutyric acid, median (IQR), mmol/L6.2 (5.4–7.2)8.0 (8.0–8.0)0.004
Glucose, median (IQR), mmol/L33.5 (25.0–37.3)24.0 (22.2–34.8)0.05
HbA1C, median (IQR), mmol/mol112 (97–130)116 (106–130)0.42
HbA1C, median (IQR), %12.4 (11.0–14.0)12.8 (11.8–14.0)0.42
Osmolarity, median (IQR), mmol/kg320 (310–351)329 (314–346)0.78
  • *Mean number of patients per study period during prepandemic study periods 2016–2019.

  • †No underlying chronic medical conditions requiring medication or ongoing medical attention present at the time of T1D diagnosis.

  • HbA1C; glycated haemoglobin; DKA, diabetic ketoacidosis; PICU, paediatric intensive care unit; T1D, type 1 diabetes.