Table 1

Criteria used in PEWS in 2013 and 2018–2019 surveys

Criterion2013 survey, n=77
No of responses (%)
2018–2019 survey, n=127
No of responses (%)
Respiratory rate68 (88.3)127 (100)
Heart rate68 (88.3)127 (100)
Oxygen saturation59 (76.6)100 (78)
Abnormal consciousness54 (70.3)91 (72)
Respiratory effort48 (62.3)93 (73)
Nurse concern42 (54.5)49 (39)
Systolic blood pressure41 (53.2)77 (61)
Oxygen therapy41 (53.2)108 (85)
Temperature35 (45.5)78 (61)
Shock34 (44.2)1 (0.7)
Doctor concern31 (40.3)35 (28)
Respiratory arrest28 (36.4)5 (4)
Stridor/wheeze25 (32.5)24 (19)
Apnoea24 (31.2)17 (13)
Prolonged seizure20 (26)3 (2)
Capillary refill time5–9 (6–12)80 (6)
Mean blood pressure10–15 (13–19)7 (5)
Parental/carer concern1 (1)65 (51)
Artificial airway10–14 (13–18)5 (4)
Nebulised medication10–14 (13–18)2 (2)
Diabetes ketoacidosis10–14 (13–18)2 (2)
Need for ventilation10–14 (13–18)4 (3)
Exhaustion15–20 (19–26)8 (6)
Urine output5–9 9 (6–12)4 (3)
Acidosis0 (0)1 (0.7)
  • Remaining criteria declared in ‘other’ option in 2018–2019 survey included:

  • Airway (patent vs obstructed) (n=8), behaviour (n=1), blood sugar (n=3), blood transfusion, colour (n=12), change from baseline (n=3), diarrhoea (n=1), grunting (n=1), Glasgow Coma Score (n=1), posture (n=1), pain (n=9), peak flow (n=1), Visual Infusion Phlebitis score (n=1) and vomiting (n=1).

  • PEWS, paediatric early warning systems.