Table 2

Resources used, unit costs by types of care, and distribution of average household costs for one episode of severe childhood pneumonia in US$ (n=1,472), 2019 price year

ParametersResource usedCost per each parameter by type of facilityOverall cost of treatment in US$
UrbanRuralUrbanRural
SpH/AH (n=741)PH (n=220)DH (n=145)UHC (n=368)SpH/AH (n=736)PH (n=218)DH (n=147)UHC (n=371)Mean (SD)Median (IQR)
n (%)n (%)n (%)n (%)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)
Diagnostic tests611 (83.0)210 (95.5)73 (50.3)20 (5.4)7.2 (7.7)13.5 (17.9)2.0 (4.8)0.3 (3.0)5.9 (10.1)3.8 (8.1)
Medicine738 (99.7)220 (100.0)129 (89.0)338 (91.6)19.9 (15.6)27.3 (28.2)10.3 (7.2)10.2 (6.5)17.6 (17.1)13.8 (12.5)
Consultation/physician fee198 (26.7)132 (61.8)46 (31.7)33 (9.0)1.1 (2.3)7.7 (16.9)1.6 (2.7)0.4 (3.9)2.0 (7.4)0.0 (1.3)
Registration/admission fee734 (99.1)217 (98.6)144 (99.3)352 (95.7)0.5 (1.0)2.9 (2.4)0.1 (0.1)0.2 (0.4)0.8 (1.5)0.3 (0.3)
Medical consumables (eg, syringe)630 (85)217 (98.6)119 (82.1)219 (59.5)3.1 (1.6)6.9 (6.0)1.8 (1.1)2.6 (1.9)3.4 (3.1)3.4 (2.7)
Bed/cabin charge87 (11.7)204 (92.7)2 (1.4)5 (1.3)2.3 (12.4)22.7 (37.9)0.2 (1.5)0.4 (4.4)4.5 (18.8)0.0 (0.0)
Nebulisation610 (82.3)201 (91.4)2 (1.4)30 (8.2)1.9 (5.3)16.6 (12.1)0.1 (0.3)0.2 (2.5)3.5 (8.3)0.0 (1.3)
Oxygen11 (1.5)66 (30.0)0 (0.0)2 (0.5)0.5 (1.2)3.6 (12.2)0.4 (1.0)0.2 (0.8)0.9 (4.9)0.0 (0.0)
Therapeutic diet23 (3.1)13 (5.9)9 (6.2)11 (3.0)0.1 (0.4)0.1 (0.9)0.1 (0.4)0.1 (0.4)0.1 (0.5)0.0 (0.0)
Direct medical cost36.6 (26.1)101.1 (96.10)16.4 (12.2)14.5 (15.6)38.7 (50.7)24.9 (31.1)
Transportation704 (95.6)219 (99.6)145 (100.0)363 (98.6)5.9 (7.4)10.6 (8.4)3.8 (4.3)3.6 (3.6)5.8 (7.0)4.2 (6.2)
Informal payment421 (57.5)93 (42.3)1 (0.7)36 (9.8)0.6 (0.9)1.0 (2.5)0.0 (0.1)0.1 (0.3)0.5 (1.1)0.0 (0.6)
Expenditure for caregivers540 (72.9)190 (86.4)137 (94.5)277 (75.3)5.4 (4.6)9.7 (9.3)5.1 (3.3)4.1 (3.0)5.7 (5.5)4.7 (3.6)
Others41 (5.5)31 (14.1)4 (2.8)45 (12.2)0.4 (0.7)1.3 (4.7)0.4 (1.0)0.4 (1.4)0.5 (2.1)0.3 (0.0)
Direct non-medical cost12.3 (9.7)22.6 (17.5)9.3 (7.1)8.2 (6.0)12.5 (11.3)10.0 (8.5)
Length of hospital in days, mean (±SD)5.7 (2.4)5.7 (3.1)3.1 (1.4)3.8 (2.3)
Total direct cost49.0 (29.7)123.7 (107.4)25.7 (15.4)22.6 (19.2)51.2 (57.7)34.5 (37.4)
Caregiver’s waiting time0.4 (0.5)1.5 (5.1)0.8 (3.1)0.6 (1.6)0.8 (2.4)0.4 (0.6)
Caregiver’s productivity loss99.8 (69.1)142.6 (105.1)68.6 (36.9)67.0 (43.6)94.9 (72.6)75.9 (59.4)
Total indirect cost100.2 (69.2)144.1 (106.6)69.5 (37.7)67.5 (44.1)95.8 (73.5)76.3 (59.8)
Total household cost149.2 (84.9)267.8 (188.4)95.2 (48.3)90.1 (53.7)147.1 (114.6)116.6 (95.3)
  • SpH/AH n=4; PH n=8; DH n=1; UHC n=3.

  • Direct medical cost: Summation of all direct medical expenses; Direct non-medical cost: Summation of all direct expenses not related to medical costs (e.g. travel); Total direct cost: Summation of total direct medical and non-medical costs; Total household cost: Summation of total direct and total indirect costs.

  • AH, autonomous hospital; DH, district hospital; PH, private hospital; SpH, specialised hospital; UHC, upazila health complex.