Table 1

Baseline characteristics of study participants (N=135) participants were recruited in triads and randomised by incentive administration

Child (n=45)Caregiver (n=45)Social network (n=45)
I (n=21)C (n=24)I (n=21)C (n=24)I (n=21)C (n=24)
Age (years)
 2–49 (43%)5 (21%)
 5–1111 (52%)17 (71%)
 12–171 (5%)2 (8%)
 18–307 (33%)8 (33%)9 (43%)4 (16%)
 31–5013 (62%)15 (63%)8 (38%)10 (42%)
 >501 (5%)1 (4%)4 (19%)10 (42%)
Gender
 Male9 (43%)14 (58%)11 (52%)11 (46%)
 Female12 (57%)10 (42%)21 (100%)24 (100%)10 (48%)13 (54%)
Income
 <20K15 (73%)20 (83%)15 (73%)22 (92%)
 20–40k3 (14%)4 (17%)4 (19%)2 (8%)
 >40K2 (9%)2 (8%)
 Refused1 (4%)
Asthma control (median value)
 TRACK7065
 ACT1821
Relationship to child
 Biological mother20 (92%)22 (92%)1(4%)1 (4%)
 Biological father6 (30%)5 (21%)
 Maternal grandmother1 (4%)2 (8%)4 (19%)7 (29%)
Maternal friend3 (14%)2 (8%)
 Other family1 (4%)7 (33%)9 (38%)
 PHQ-4 (median value)21.5
 Depression54
Anxiety
 FTND (median value)7888
Monthly cigarette expenditures (US$)
 <201 (4%)2 (8%)1 (4%)2 (8%)
 21–7510 (48%)12 (50%)10 (48%)5 (21%)
 >7610 (48%)10 (42%)10 (48%)17 (71%)
Number of quit attempts in the last year
 08 (38%)8 (33%)7 (33%)13 (55%)
 1–27 (33%)12 (50%)11 (53%)7 (29%)
 >26 (29%)4 (17%)3 (14%)4 (16%)
Methods used to quit in the last year
 Abrupt cessation only8 (62%)9 (56%)6 (43%)9 (82%)
 Behavioural counselling only1 (8%)2 (13%)
 NRT only2 (15%)1 (6%)7 (50%)
 Combination of the above2 (15%)4 (25%)1 (7%)2 (18%)
Reasons for smoking
 A1 (4%)1 (4%)1 (4%)
 SR10 (45%)12 (50%)6 (28%)8 (34%)
 Other3 (14%)1 (4%)1 (4%)3 (12%)
 A±SR±weight control9 (41%)10 (42%)14 (64%)12 (50%)
Additional smokers living in home
 04 (19%)7 (29%)4 (19%)4 (17%)
 115 (71%)17 (71%)14 (67%)20 (83%)
 22 (10%)3 (14%)
Indoor home smoking ban
 Yes7 (33%)6 (25%)4 (19%)6 (25%)
 No14 (67%)18 (75%)17 (81%)18 (75%)
 Cotinine (ng/mL) (median value)7.35.28192187187.1201
 Exhaled CO (ppm) (median value)119914.5
  • A, addiction/craving; ACT, Asthma Control Test; C, randomisation to the control cohort; CO, carbon monoxide; FTND, Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence; I, randomisation to the incentive intervention cohort; NRT, nicotine replacement therapy; PHQ-4, Patient Health Questionnaire-4; SR, stress relief; TRACK, Test for Respiratory and Asthma Control in Kids.