Table 2

Characteristics of mothers with syphilis associated with CS

CharacteristicCS (n=39)Non-CS (n=1519)χ²/Z valueP value
Mother’s age (years, %)25.136 <0.001
 ≤2417 (7.1)224 (92.9)
 25–299 (2.3)380 (97.7)
 30–347 (1.4)477 (98.6)
 ≥356 (1.4)438 (98.6)
Ethnicity (%)0.183*0.422
 Han36 (2.4)1445 (97.6)
 others3 (3.9)74 (96.1)
Marital status (%)9.272* 0.002
 Married29 (2.1)1374 (97.9)
 Unmarried10 (6.5)145 (93.5)
Educational attainment (%)†0.6430.887
 Primary school or below4 (3.1)126 (96.9)
 Middle school17 (2.6)637 (97.4)
 High school11 (2.7)394 (97.3)
 Bachelor or above4 (1.8)214 (98.2)
Employed (%)†0.0250.875
 No20 (2.4)816 (97.6)
 Yes10 (2.3)434 (97.7)
Migrant resident (%)1.734*0.188
 Yes6 (4.6)124 (95.4)
 No33 (2.3)1395 (97.7)
History of syphilis infections (%)14.005 <0.001
 Yes7 (0.9)733 (99.1)
 No32 (3.9)786 (96.1)
Maternal syphilis stage (%)3.5530.059
 Latent27 (2.1)1234 (97.9)
 Stage I–III12(4)285(96)
Titres of TRUST before treatment (%)67.220 <0.001
 <1:89 (0.7)1196 (99.3)
 ≥1:830 (8.5)323 (91.5)
Period of initiating treatment (%)115.138* <0.001
 Before 28 weeks9 (0.8)1187 (99.2)
 After 28 weeks3 (1.8)160 (98.2)
 No treatment27 (13.6)172 (86.4)
Drugs (%)10.3820.006
 Penicillin G21 (1.5)1393 (98.5)
 Ceftriaxone1 (11.1)8 (88.9)
 Erythromycin2 (7.1)26 (92.9)
Mode of delivery (%)1.0170.313
 Vaginal delivery25 (2.9)846 (97.1)
 Caesarean section14 (2.1)665 (97.9)
Newborn’s sex (%)0.6760.411
 Boy24 (2.8)834 (97.2)
 Girl15 (2.1)685 (97.9)
Newborn receiving treatment (%)0.0190.892
 Yes27 (2.5)1036 (97.5)
 No12 (2.4)483 (97.6)
Preterm birth (%)83.112* <0.001
 Yes22 (13.3)144 (86.7)
 No17 (1.2)1375 (98.8)
  • Significant P-values are in bold-type.

  • *The χ² correction for continuity tests were used for categorical variables.

  • †There were missing values in each group.

  • CS, congenital syphilis; TRUST, toluidine red unheated serum test.