Table 2

Monitoring and supportive care considerations

CardiovascularPulse, blood pressure, capillary refill time, urine output, ECG
RespiratoryAirway patency and protection, oxygen saturation, ventilation adequacy, pulmonary function tests (peak flow and inspirometers), blood gases, capnography if ventilated
NeurologicalCranial nerves examination, peripheral neurological examination, pain (avoid opiates where possible)
Laboratory investigationsBlood (full blood count), prothrombin time/INR, APTT, fibrinogen, D-dimer, urea, creatinine, creatine kinase, electrolytes, calcium, phosphate, uric acid, haemoglobinuria, myoglobinuria (in low-income settings, these may differ, with tests such as 20 min whole blood clotting test (WBCT 20 min) and packed cell volume more readily available)
Local siteAssessment for infection, swelling, tissue necrosis, early surgical involvement if debridement necessary, compartment pressures if clinical suspicion of compartment syndrome