Table 2

Coded indicators of specific family violence outcomes as measured by the included studies

OutcomeIndicator and period*Descriptions*No. data sources†Frequently used codes‡
Prenatal neglect/substance misuse during pregnancy 20
Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)NAS: primary diagnosisDiagnosis of substance withdrawal symptoms in newborns, typically within the first few days after birth, resulting from drug use (commonly opioids) during pregnancy.135 1336 39–43 45 ICD-9: 779.5.
ICD-10: P96.1.
Newborn affected by drugsLess specific indicator of NAS, defined by the fetus being affected by maternal substances, noxious influences or medications NOS.739 43 ICD-9: 760.72.
ICD-10: P04.4x.
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)FAS: primary diagnosisFAS is one type of a spectrum of disorders linked to alcohol exposure during pregnancy. Symptoms include abnormal facial features, deficiencies in growth (including brain/ neurophysiology) and/or neurobehavioural impairment in children (0–19 years, typically diagnosed 2–5 years).136 746–52 ICD-9: 760.71.
ICD-10: Q86.0, P04.3.
Child maltreatment (CM) among children aged 0–19 years 50
CMCM primary diagnosesAny diagnosis of CM including neglect, abandonment, physical, sexual and psychological/emotional abuse (0–18 years).1914 55 59 60 62 66 68 71 77 80 82 85 87 96 97 ICD-9: 995.5x, E967.x, E960.x-968.x.
ICD-10: T74.x, Y06.x, Y07.x.
Abusive head trauma (AHT)Skull and/or intracranial injuries due to inflicted blunt impact/penetration and/or violent shaking (0–5 years). Coding clusters include different degrees of certainty: ‘definite or presumptive’ and ‘probable’ AHT. Other common terms are ‘shaking infant syndrome’ or ’whiplash shaking baby syndrome’.137 462 80 85 138 ICD-9: As in CM + 781.0-781.4, 800.x-801.x, 854.0 x, 950.0-950.3.
ICD-10: As in CM + S06.0-S06.9, S09.7-S09.8, T90.5.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI)Skull and/or intracranial injuries and concussion (<5 years of age) characterised by the level of loss of consciousness or altered mental status, ranging from mild TBI (in most cases a concussion) to severe TBI (patient is comatose, unable to open their eyes and so on).139 757 66 69 76 80 84 92 ICD-9: 800.0-801.9, 803.0-804.9, 850.1-850.5, 850.9, 851.0-854.1, 959.01.
ICD-10: S02.0, S02.1x, S02.8, S02.91, S04.02, S04.03.x, S04.04x, S06.x, S07.1, T74.4.
Skull fracturesA fracture of one or more bones of the cranial vault or skull base.1053 57 70 72 73 75 83 88 95 96 ICD-9: 800.x-804.x
ICD-10: S02.x
Subdural haematomaA collection of blood between the dura and arachnoid coverings of the brain. In this review, subdural haematoma includes ICD-coded subdural haemorrhages.557 76 88 94 96 ICD-9: 852.2, 432.1.
ICD-10: I62.0, S06.57.
Retinal haemorrhageExtravasation of blood into the retina, between the retina and the subhyaloid or preretinal or between the retina and the subretina.465 81 88 96 ICD-9: 362.81.
ICD-10: H35.6.
Upper limb fracturesIn this review, referred to as fractures of the humerus, radius or the ulna.474 86 89 91 96 ICD-9: 812.x, 813.x
ICD-10: S42.2-S42.9, T10.
Lower limb fracturesIn this review, referred to as fractures of the femur, diaphysis, tibia or fibula.654 56 63 67 89 96 ICD-9: 820.x, 821.x.
ICD-10: S72.x, S82.x, T12.
Rib fracturesA break in the rib bone of the thoracic skeleton.464 74 88 89 ICD-9: 807.0-807.1x
ICD-10: S22.3, S22.4.
Multiple burnsBurns and corrosions of multiple and unspecified body regions.358 88 96 ICD-9: 946.0.
ICD-10: T29.x-T32.x.
AssaultsIntentional injuries (sexual, physical, emotional or psychological) inflicted by another person.659 77 78 82 88 ICD-9: E960.0-E969.0, V71.6.
ICD-10: X85-Y09.
Assaults/CM/adversityCombination of multiple broad codes deemed to meet the threshold for potential child harm including CM, assaults, drug or alcohol intoxication, poisoning of undetermined cause, concerns for psychosocial circumstances, specific fractures and/or sexual diseases in children (0–18 years).661 64 82 90 93 ICD-9: As in CM + V15.4, V61.2, V71.8, E960.1, E967.
ICD-10: X85-Y09, Z04.0-Z04.8, Z60.0-Z91.8.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) among women aged 12–55 years 18
IPVIPV primary diagnosisAny diagnosis of partner maltreatment syndromes including neglect, abandonment, physical, sexual and psychological abuse.140 3111 114 115 ICD-9: E967.3, 995.80, 995.81. ICD-10: T74.1, Y06.0, Y07.0.
AssaultsIntentional injuries (sexual, physical, emotional or psychological) inflicted by another person.10100 102 105 107–109 112–114 116 ICD-9: E960.0-E969.0, V71.6, V71.5.
ICD-10: X85-Y09.
Head, face and neck injuriesMaxillofacial fractures (mandible fractures, zygomatic complex fractures and intracranial injuries) and crushing injuries of head and neck.499 103 107 110 ICD-9: 802.0-802.9.
ICD-10: S02.2, S02.6, S06.x-S07.x.
Ocular injuries
(eg, orbital fractures)
Ocular injuries such as fractures to the orbital floor and sustained scleral laceration or ruptures.499 103 106 117 ICD-9: 802.6, 871.0, 871.1.
ICD-10: S02.3, S05.1, S05.2-S05.3.
Contusions of upper bodyBruises or contusions of the throat, breast, upper arms/shoulders and eyelids, periocular areas and scalp.3101 107 110 ICD-9: 920.x-924.x.
ICD-10: S10.0-S10.9, S20.0, S40.x, S05.1, S00.1, S05.7.
  • *Indicator definitions represent condensed descriptions for the overall category and are not representative of all ICD code descriptions.

  • †References represent the number of unique publications per indicator and do not necessarily match the corresponding number of data sources, as one publication can provide estimates for one indicator from several unique data sources. The same reference can also apply to multiple indicators, as one reference can report on estimates for multiple indicators.

  • ‡Complete lists of codes by individual studies and indicators are provided in online supplementary table S8.

  • “x” indicates any character from fourth through seven.ICD, International Classification of Diseases; NOS, not otherwise specified.