Table 1

Comparison of demographic and clinical characteristics of children referred with DKA during, and prior to, the COVID-19 pandemic

Patient characteristicsPandemic period: March–July 2020 (n=31)Prepandemic comparison periods
January 2018–February 2020 (n=105)P valueMarch–July in 2018 and 2019 (n=31)P value
Age (years), median (IQR)10.1 (5.1–13.5)8.8 (4.6–12.0)0.274*9.1 (4.3–13.5)0.304*
Sex, n (%)0.307†0.075†
 Male13 (42)55 (52)20 (65)
 Female18 (58)50 (48)11 (35)
First presentation of DM, n (%)0.111†0.130†
 Yes29 (94)85 (82)25 (81)
 No2 (6)19 (18)6 (19)
Duration of symptoms (days), median (IQR)7 (3–14)7 (3–14)0.816*5 (2–21)0.745*
pH, mean (SD)‡6.94 (0.12)6.95 (0.12)0.821§6.96 (0.11)0.445§
PCO2, mean (SD)‡2.94 (0.98)3.06 (0.99)0.538§2.99 (0.82)0.588§
Bicarbonate, median (IQR)‡5.5 (3.9–7.1)6.0 (4.9–7.5)0.176*6.15 (5.0–6.8)0.243*
Base excess, median (IQR)‡−27.4 (−29.2 to −24.1)−26.2 (−28.5 to −23.0)0.452*−25.1 (−28.0 to −22.9)0.211*
Lactate, median (IQR)‡3.2 (2.4–4.3)3.0 (2.1–4.0)0.466*3.2 (2.4–5.4)0.620*
Admitted to PICU, n (%)11 (35)26 (25)0.239†13 (42)0.602†
Intubated, n (%)1 (3.2)4 (3.8)0.879†3 (9.7)0.301†
  • *Wilcoxon rank-sum (Mann-Whitney) test.

  • †χ2 test.

  • ‡Blood gas analysis parameters are taken from the first test performed following presentation to hospital.

  • §t-Test.

  • DKA, diabetic ketoacidosis; DM, diabetes mellitus; PCO2, partial pressure of carbon dioxide; PICU, paediatric intensive care unit.