Table 2

Quotes illustrating the transfer of control

Acceptance of parents’ views and actions
(a) Mirroring parents’ beliefs“Drink hot water… cough will reduce… can breathe and will be better.” (D5_FGD5ICh, 10-year-old Indian boy)
“If he continuously drinks the warm water, it can help to prevent getting phlegm (which causes asthma).” (K7_FGD7IC, Indian, mother of D5)
(b) Mirroring parents’ actions“Take a lot of nutritious food like honey, and religiously encouraged food like pomegranate” (W2_FGD2MCh, 11-year-old Malay boy)
“I think it is good to give supplement because I gave his pomegranate juice for quite some time and he did not have any attack.” (AM1_FGD1MMC, Malay mother to W2)
(c) Parental ‘rules‘“I like cats and dogs. It’s fluffy and I like to touch and play with it. But then the fur and dust will be flying. When I breathe it gets into my nose. Will be sneezing a lot. That’s when I get asthma.” (NG3_FGD3ICh, 11-year-old boy)
“I had dogs in my house. He (my son) had problem and had attacks when we had furry dogs. Now, the dogs will stay outside of the house.” (PK4_FGD4IC, Indian mother to NG3)
(d) Parental confidence in child’s ability to manage asthma“I’ll drop by the school and give the inhalers. I wouldn’t let my child bring it along. I’ll just come on time, give the puff using the inhalers and let them go back to their class.” (KO4_FGD4IC, Indian, mother of a 10-year-old boy)
Experiential learning and growing independence with age
“When I have asthma, I’ll scream and call my mum… Mom will drive me to hospital, and they’ll give gas.” (H6_FGD6_ICh, 7-year-old Indian girl)
“Moderator: What do you do when you have asthma? PU1: My mum asks me to use the inhaler. Moderator: Take the inhaler, what do you do after that? PU1: If not better after using the inhaler, will go and get gas (nebuliser).” (FGD1_MCh, 10-year-old Malay girl)
“AM2: Controlled.
Moderator: You said it(asthma) is controlled although it disturbed you? AM2: Because now, I already know how to some breathing technique, no need to use the blue inhaler.” (AM2_FGD2MCh, 12-year-old Malay boy)
“When I was late for school, I ran to school and asthma sometimes occurred. That time, I would slow down and walk slowly, then the breathing discomfort would reduce… Sometimes I have to rest for 30 minutes and sometimes even one hour after intense exercises… I will wait by my self. Sometimes I will tell my mother after school if there was still breathing discomfort. Usually at school, I will figure out myself.” (C1_IDI4_CCh, 12-year-old Chinese boy)