Table 1

Characteristics of 58 children with SARS-CoV-2 infection in Hospital La Paz, Madrid, Spain

All cases (n=58)Outpatients (n=25)Inpatients (n=33)P value*
Male sex37 (63.8%)15 (60%)22 (66.7%)0.801
Median age in months (IQR)35.5 (3.3–146)82 (6–151)19.4 (1.4–117)0.438
Symptomatic household contact30 (51.7%)18 (72%)12 (36.4%) 0.0153
Underlying conditions23 (39.7%)10 (40%)13 (39.4%)0.963
 Immunodeficiency (primary or secondary)6 (26%)3 (12%)3 (9.1%)
 Respiratory disease6 (26%)1 (4%)5 (15.2%)
 Cardiovascular disease5 (21.7%)1 (4%)4 (12.1%)
 Solid organ transplant2 (8.6%)02 (6.1%)
 Nephropathy2 (8.6%)02 (6.1%)
 Neurological disease1 (4.4%)01 (3%)
 Vasculitis1 (4.4%)01 (3%)
Signs and symptoms
 Temperature >37.9°C41 (70.7%)18 (72%)23 (69.7%)0.849
 Cough42 (72.4%)18 (72%)24 (72.7%)0.951
 Rhinorrhoea33 (56.9%)14 (56%)19 (57.6%)0.904
 Sore throat4 (6.9%)2 (8%)2 (6.1%)0.773
 Breathing difficulty10 (17.2%)2 (8%)8 (24.2%)0.105
 Vomiting9 (15.5%)3 (12%)6 (18.2%)0.520
 Diarrhoea7 (12.1%)5 (20%)2 (6.1%)0.107
 Headache8 (13.8%)4 (16%)4 (12.1%)0.671
 Myalgia2 (3.4%)2 (8%)00.098
 Rash2 (3.4%)02 (6.1%)0.693
 Loss of taste1 (1.7%)1 (4%)00.246
 Anosmia1 (1.7%)1 (4%)00.246
 SatO2 <93%14 (24.1%)014 (42.4%) 0.002
Chest radiograph40 (69%)15 (60%)25 (75.8%)0.318
 Normal5 (12.5%)2 (13.3%)3 (12%)0.671
 Perihilar infiltrates15 (37.5%)6 (40%)9 (36%)
 Ground glass interstitial pattern10 (25%)5 (33.3%)5 (20%)
 Lobar consolidation3 (7.5%)1 (6.7%)2 (8%)
 Multilobar consolidation7 (17.5%)1 (6.7%)6 (24%)
 Blood tests†43 (74.1%)14 (56%)29 (87.9%) 0.0137
 Leucocytes/mm3 (median (IQR))9145 (5830–9145)8010 (5562–
10 745)
9145 (5935–12 107)0.498
 Lymphocytes/mm3 (median (IQR))2390 (970–3930)2700 (2100–5110)1945 (835–4140)0.192
 D-dimer; mg/dL (IQR)903 (717–2143)403 (260–867)920 (710–2112)0.912
 Procalcitonin; ng/mL (IQR)0.11 (0.06–0.16)0.08 (0.03–0.17)0.13 (0.09–0.16)0.338
 C reactive protein; mg/L (IQR)7.4 (0.67–26.3)7.4 (0.6–31)7.5 (0.6–23)0.853
Diagnosis
 Febrile syndrome12 (20.7%)3 (12%)9 (27.3%) 0.038
 Upper respiratory tract infection22 (37.9%)16 (64%)6 (18.2%)
 Pneumonia18 (31%)5 (20%)13 (39.4%)
 Other‡6 (10.3%)1 (4%)5 (15.1%)
Treatment
 Hydroxychloroquine31 (53.4%)11 (44%)20 (60.6%)0.322
 Lopinavir/ritonavir202 (6%)
 Tocilizumab202 (6%)
 Remdesivir303 (9%)
  • *Comparison between outpatients and inpatients.

  • †In patients with more than one blood test result, values represent highest leucocytes, D-dimer, procalcitonin and C reactive protein and lowest lymphocytes.

  • ‡Diabetic ketoacidosis, hypertensive emergency, appendicitis, 2 cases of febrile urinary tract infection (Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis), recurrent wheezing.