Table 3

Treatment changes according to first-line oral antibiotic given for childhood pneumonia at hospital admission

Treatment changes (outcome)First-line oral antibiotic given in hospital
No add-on antibiotic given26 (63.4)744 (72.7)859 (59.8)114 (13.1)
‘Add-on’ oral antibiotic within <3 days‡4 (9.8)118 (11.5)242 (16.9)354 (40.6)
‘Add-on’ oral antibiotic after ≥3 days‡8 (19.5)111 (10.8)196 (13.6)287 (33.0)
Switch to intravenous antibiotics3 (7.3)51 (5.0)139 (9.7)116 (13.3)
Total 41 1024 1436 871
  • *The decision to give cefuroxime instead of amoxicillin is usually not based on disease severity, but we were unable to rule out potential unmeasured bias in the patient cohorts.

  • †Including erythromycin, azithromycin and clarithromycin.

  • ‡Addition of either a macrolide (if not on a macrolide) or a beta-lactam antibiotic (if on a macrolide) post admission during ward review by a senior clinician (rarely based on microbiology results).

  • Amoxi/clav, amoxicillin with clavulanic acid.