Table 4

Associations of oximetry-detected PP, at ED presentation, with primary outcomes

PP present (n=78)PP absent (n=207)Relative risk (95% CI)P value
Use of adjuncts (intravenous MgSO4, aminophylline)8 (10.3%)7 (3.4%)3.0 (1.1 to 8.1) 0.033
Need for supplementary ventilation (non-invasive or endotracheal intubation)3 (3.8%)3 (1.4%)2.7 (0.6 to 12.9)0.351
Need for HDU or ICU care15 (19.2%)19 (9.2%)2.1 (1.1 to 3.9) 0.025
  • P value of less than 0.05 is considered significant.

  • ED, emergency department; HDU, high dependency unit; ICU, intensive care unit; MgSO4, magnesium sulfate; PP, pulsus paradoxus.