Table 1

Demographics of patients presenting to ED with moderate to severe wheezing

PP present at arrival in ED (n=78)PP absent at arrival in ED (n=207)P value
Median age
(25th–75th percentile)
3.86 (2.45–5.38)3.55 (2.18–5.89)0.535
Age
 Number of children<1 year of age3 (3.8%)15 (7.2%)0.637
 Number of children 1–2 years old9 (11.5%)26 (12.6%)
 Number of children>2 years old66 (84.6%)166 (80.2%)
Race
 Chinese33 (42.3%)91 (44.0%)0.728
 Malay28 (35.9%)82 (39.6%)
 Indian11 (14.1%)22 (10.6%)
 Others6 (7.7%)12 (5.8%)
Gender
 Male46 (59.0%)114 (55.1%)0.594
History of previous admission to HDU or ICU9 (11.5%)16 (7.7%)0.349
History of use of preventers (inhaled corticosteroids or montelukast)9 (11.5%)47 (22.7%) 0.044
Details of pretreatment received prior to ED attendance
 No pretreatment33 (42.3%)104 (50.2%)0.496
 Inhaled Salbutamol given via MDI space chamber36 (46.2%)83 (40.1%)
 Nebulised bronchodilators9 (11.5%)20 (9.7%)
  • P value of less than 0.05 is considered significant.

  • ED, emergency department; HDU, high dependency unit; ICU, intensive care unit; MDI, metered dose inhaler; PP, pulsus paradoxus.