Table 2

Logistic regression showing factors related to staff distress (n=1656)

Moral distress†Burnout: depersonalisation ¶ or EE †† above thresholdPost-traumatic stressd‡
Years in service (per year) 1.05 (1.02–1.08)** 1.03 (1.00–1.05)*1.01 (0.98–1.03)
Age in years (per year) 0.97 (0.95–0.99)* 0.95 (0.93–0.96)**0.98 (0.96–1.01)
Male gender (compared with female) 0.62 (0.4–0.97)*1.14 (0.79–1.64)0.91 (0.59–1.41)
Unit type§
Cardiac (reference)
 Mixed0.84 (0.55–1.27)0.94 (0.63–1.38)0.83 (0.54–1.27)
 General1.18 (0.76–1.83)1.07 (0.72–1.59)1.04 (0.67–1.62)
Grade
Consultant (reference)
 Junior doctor1.04 (0.51–2.11) 2.69 (1.49–4.8)**1.42 (0.67–3)
 Senior nurse (including ANP)1.54 (0.88–2.71) 2.17 (1.29–3.67)** 2.66 (1.42–5.00)**
 Junior nurse 1.92 (1.13–3.24)* 2.09 (1.30–3.37)** 2.86 (1.59–5.17)**
 Other0.44 (0.22–0.87)* 2.25 (1.34–3.77)**0.81 (0.35–1.86)
Unit size (quartiles)
2–9 beds (reference)
 10–12 beds1.13 (0.79–1.62)1.31 (0.95–1.79)1.28 (0.89–1.83)
 13–15 beds 2.05 (1.35–3.11)**1.36 (0.92–2.00)1.06 (0.68–1.66)
 16–28 beds 2.45 (1.61–3.74)** 2.00 (1.36–2.93)** 1.72 (1.12–2.65)*
  • *p<0.05; **p<0.01.

  • †Assessed using the Moral Distress Scale-Revised ≥90.

  • ‡Assessed using the Trauma Screening Questionnaire ≥6.

  • §Transport unit omitted from models due to collinearity with older age and male gender (see the Discussion section).

  • ¶Assessed using the abbreviated Maslach Burnout Inventory Depersonalisation subscale ≥6 (equivalent to ≥10 on full MBI).

  • ††Assessed using the abbreviated Maslach Burnout Inventory Emotional Exhaustion subscale ≥9 (equivalent to ≥27 on full MBI).

  • ANP, advanced nurse practitioner; EE, emotional exhaustion; MBI, Maslach Burnout Inventory.