Table 1

Model inputs: time, success and urine test results

Number of data estimate derived from (N)SDDistributionSource
Urine bag
 Procedure time85 min2367 minLog normalMcKune35
 Success96%16948%*BetaAlam et al 36
 Contamination46%1323%*BetaTosif et al 8
 Send sample for culture72%50436%*BetaSchroeder et al 37
 Recall patient if culture contaminated33%2023%BetaExpert opinion†
Clean catch
 Procedure time31 min21842 minLog normalTosif et al 11
 Success64%21845%BetaTosif et al 11
 Contamination26%20213%*BetaTosif et al 8
 Send sample for culture80%16040%*BetaTosif et al 11
 Recall patient if culture contaminated40%2025%BetaExpert opinion†
Voiding stimulation
(Quick-Wee method)
 Procedure time5 minN/A‡N/A‡FixedKaufman et al 15
 Success30%17447%BetaKaufman e t al 15
 Contamination27%4447%BetaKaufman et al 15
 Send sample for culture85%5242%*BetaKaufman et al 15
 Recall patient if culture contaminated37%2020%BetaExpert opinion†
 Procedure time12 min457 minLog normalBaumann et al 38
 Success90%14845%*BetaPoonai 201539¶¶
 Contamination12%976%*BetaTosif et al 8
 Send sample for culture95%103047%*BetaSchroeder e t al 37
 Recall patient if culture contaminated60%2023%BetaExpert opinion†
Suprapubic aspirate
 Procedure time8 min204 minLog normalExpert opinion†
 Success44%3822%*BetaMunir e t al 10
 Contamination1%840.05%*BetaTosif e t al 8
 Send sample for culture100%N/A¶N/A§¶FixedRCH5
 Recall patient if culture contaminated72%2026%BetaExpert opinion†
  • Procedure time: from starting collection process to when urine voided or collection attempt stopped.

  • ¶¶Personal correspondence with author to clarify data.

  • *SD or data distribution not available; SD estimated using Briggs assumption.40

  • †Where published data were unavailable, we used expert opinion from surveying 20 senior paediatricians and paediatric emergency physicians.

  • ‡Assumed fixed 5 min duration for all voiding stimulation attempts.

  • §Personal correspondence with author to clarify data.

  • ¶Based on Clinical Practice Guideline recommendation.

  • RCH, Royal Children’s Hospital.