Table 1

Characteristics of participants by hospitalisation status

VariablesOverallHospitalisation during the first 12 monthsP value*
YesNo
Total, n (%)1709 (100)423 (24.8)1286 (75.2)
Maternal age (years), mean±SD27.5±5.327.1±5.127.6±5.30.072
Occupation, n (%)0.816
 Currently not working533 (31.2)130 (30.7)403 (31.3)
 Currently working1176 (68.8)293 (69.3)883 (68.7)
Education level, n (%)0.031
 Secondary school or lower574 (33.6)146 (34.5)428 (33.3)
 High school graduate445 (26.0)127 (30.0)318 (24.7)
 College/university or above690 (40.4)150 (35.5)540 (42.0)
Parity, n (%)0.720
 0655 (38.3)160 (37.8)495 (38.5)
 1636 (37.2)164 (38.8)472 (36.7)
 ≥2418 (24.5)99 (23.4)319 (24.8)
Pre pregnancy BMI (kg/m2), mean±SD20.1±2.420.1±2.520.1±2.40.945
Gestational diabetes†, n (%)0.391
 Yes373 (21.8)86 (20.3)287 (22.3)
 No1336 (78.2)337 (79.7)999 (77.7)
Gestational age (weeks), n (%)0.214
 Preterm: <3771 (4.2)22 (5.2)49 (3.8)
 Not preterm: ≥371638 (95.8)401 (94.8)1237 (96.2)
Gestational weight gain (kg), mean±SD13.0±4.013.3±3.813.0±4.00.112
Caesarean section, n (%)0.784
 Yes653 (38.2)164 (38.8)489 (38.0)
 No1056 (61.8)259 (61.2)797 (62.0)
Infant gender, n (%)<0.001
 Boy875 (51.2)249 (58.9)626 (48.7)
 Girl834 (48.8)174 (41.1)660 (51.3)
Birth weight (g), mean±SD3146.2±395.03120.3±427.73154.7±383.40.143
Admission to NICU, n (%)0.078
 Yes44 (2.6)16 (3.8)28 (2.2)
 No1665 (97.4)407 (96.2)1258 (97.8)
Prelacteal feeding, n (%)966 (56.5)258 (61.0)708 (55.0)0.033
Early formula feeding, n (%)1352 (79.1)350 (82.7)1002 (77.9)0.034
  • *From χ2 and t-tests.

  • †Based on International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria (2010).

  • BMI, body mass index; NICU, neonatal intensive care unit; SD, Standard deviation.