Table 1

Definitions of terms and covariates used in the study

Health services
 Sub-health centreTargeted to whole population
Staffed by generalist nurse, vaccinator, midwife
Provide ANC, PNC, growth monitoring, vaccination and integrated management of childhood illness clinics but no delivery care or emergency care (emergency cases are stabilised and referred to BHC, CHC or DH)12
 BHCTargeted to whole population
Staffed by generalist nurse, vaccinator, midwife
Provide services as above but also assistance to normal deliveries (emergency cases are stabilised and referred to BHC, CHC or DH)12
 CHCTargeted to whole population
Staffed by generalist nurse, vaccinator, midwife, doctor
Provide services as above but also basic emergency obstetric care from a midwife which includes manual removal of placenta and retained products, blood transfusion, basic laboratory services. Also provides vaccination outreach (one outreach service per CHC)12
 DHTargeted to whole population
Staffed by generalist nurse, vaccinator, midwife, doctor
Provide services as above but also comprehensive emergency obstetric care from a doctor or nurse which includes surgery, anaesthesia and caesarean section. No outreach vaccination service12
 Vaccination outreach servicesTargeted to pregnant women and children
Staffed by male vaccinator on motor bicycle
Provide vaccination services four times per month by staff who travel from the fixed centre to surrounding villages by motorcycle and return to base the same day; and one vaccination service per CHC12
 Mobile health teamsTargeted to pregnant women and children under 5 years
Staffed by midwife, vaccinator, nurse
Provide ANC, PNC, vaccinations, treatment of childhood illnesses, advise on referral and transport of all deliveries and complicated cases. If deliveries occurred while the MHTs are in a village, the MHT midwives assist and organise follow-up; and ongoing sustained scheduled service delivery to the most remote and conflict-affected villages every 2 months and return to base every 4–6 weeks7 12
 Health facility densityPopulation per health facility
Socio-demographics
 Lowest wealth quintileWomen scored in asset index as being in the lowest 20% of the population5
 No female educationWomen with no formal education5
 No female careseekingWomen who report having to ask permission before seeking healthcare5
Access
 RemoteDistrict centre more than 2 hours by any form of transport from provincial capital16
 MountainousMore than 1800-km elevation at highest point of district16
 High security riskUse of armed force between warring parties in a conflict dyad, state-based or non-state, resulting in deaths). 25 deaths or less in the previous 12 months is categorised as low intensity security risk, 25–100 is categorised as moderate intensity security risk and 100+ is categorised as high intensity security risk13 17
  • ANC, antenatal care; BHC, basic health centre; CHC, comprehensive health centre; DH, district hospital; PNC, postnatal care.