Table 4

Association between prelacteal feeding, early formula feeding and adverse health outcomes during the first year of life

Feeding method before hospital dischargeHospitalisation
(0–12 months)
AOR*
(95% CI)
Diarrhoea
(0–12 months)
AOR*
(95% CI)
Lower respiratory tract infection (0–12 months)AOR*
(95% CI)
Yes
n (%)
No
n (%)
Yes
n (%)
No
n (%)
Yes
n (%)
No
n (%)
Prelacteal feeding
 Yes258 (26.7)708 (73.3)1.43 (1.09 to 1.88)271 (28.0)695 (71.9)1.56 (1.19 to 2.05)504 (52.2)462 (47.8)1.50 (1.18 to 1.90)
 No165 (22.2)578 (77.8)1164 (22.1)579 (77.9)1310 (41.7)433 (58.3)1
Formula feeding
 Yes350 (25.9)1002 (74.1)1.48 (1.07 to 2.05)357 (26.4)995 (73.6)1.37 (1.00 to 1.87)672 (49.7)680 (50.3)1.41 (1.08 to 1.83)
 No73 (20.4)284 (79.6)178 (21.9)279 (78.1)1142 (39.8)215 (60.2)1
  • *Adjusted for maternal age (years), occupation (currently not working; currently working), education level (secondary school or lower; high school graduate; college/university or above), parity (0; 1; ≥2), prepregnancy body mass index (kg/m2), gestational diabetes (yes; no), gestational age (preterm; not preterm), gestational weight gain (kg), caesarean section (yes; no), infant gender (boy; girl), birth weight (g), admission to neonatal intensive care unit (yes; no) and any breastfeeding duration (weeks). The models only included those with complete follow-up data for 12 months (n=1709).

  • AOR, adjusted OR; CI, confidence Interval.