Table 1

Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of surgical pateints with CHD

n (129)%
Gender
 Male8767
Age groups (years)
 <4129
 5–96752
 10–154333
 16–1876
Education
Currently studying
 Preschool2822
 Primary (grade 1–5)5240
 High school (grade 6–12)2620
Currently not studying2016
Completed: high school (grade 12)32
Residential place: Karachi10682
Income: below poverty line (LMIC)9070
Family structure
 Nuclear5543
 Extended7457
Parental education
 At least one parent completed high education6450
 At least one parent completed University6550
CHD severity
 Simple86
 Moderate8566
 Complex3628
CHD categorisation
 Biventricle12395.34
 Single ventricle64.65
Number of surgeries
 110985
 ≥22015
Cardiac prognostic severity
 RACHS 187
 RACHS 29271
 RACHS ≥32922
Age at diagnosis (years)
 ≤110783
 >12217
Age at first surgery (years)
 ≤14132
 >18868
NYHA I 12093
Cardiac medications*2721
Mean±SD
Current age (years)8.84±3.87
Time since last surgery (years)4.08±1.91
Cardiopulmonary bypass time (min)110.14±50.71
Length of stay postsurgery (days)6.74±3.26
  • *Medications alone or in combination include ACE inhibitors, β-blocker, anticoagulant.

  • CHD, congenital heart disease; NYHA, New York Heart Association; RACHS, risk adjustment for congenital heart surgery.