Table 1

Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of surgical pateints with CHD

n (129)%
Age groups (years)
Currently studying
 Primary (grade 1–5)5240
 High school (grade 6–12)2620
Currently not studying2016
Completed: high school (grade 12)32
Residential place: Karachi10682
Income: below poverty line (LMIC)9070
Family structure
Parental education
 At least one parent completed high education6450
 At least one parent completed University6550
CHD severity
CHD categorisation
 Single ventricle64.65
Number of surgeries
Cardiac prognostic severity
 RACHS 187
 RACHS 29271
 RACHS ≥32922
Age at diagnosis (years)
Age at first surgery (years)
NYHA I 12093
Cardiac medications*2721
Current age (years)8.84±3.87
Time since last surgery (years)4.08±1.91
Cardiopulmonary bypass time (min)110.14±50.71
Length of stay postsurgery (days)6.74±3.26
  • *Medications alone or in combination include ACE inhibitors, β-blocker, anticoagulant.

  • CHD, congenital heart disease; NYHA, New York Heart Association; RACHS, risk adjustment for congenital heart surgery.