Table 1

M&E needs in ECD programmes according to level of impact framework

Level of M&E frameworkWhat are we trying to measure?What is available?
Impact (outcomes) Deaths.
Child development – multiple domains.
Child health.
Function and participation.
Well-being and quality of life.
Adolescent and adult outcomes.
Proxy measures of child development (eg, stunting).
Limited childhood disability data.
Child mortality and health morbidity data.
Risk factors for targetingBiopsychosocial risk:
Stunting/undernutrition (2.2).
Low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth, neonatal encephalopathy and sepsis (3.2).
Extreme poverty (1.2).
Exposure to violence (16.2).
Access to education (4.2).
Maternal mental health and education.
Neonatal estimates – LBW and preterm.
Maternal mortality and birth by age 18 years.
Maltreatment, harsh punishment and inadequate supervision.
Coverage* Intervention coverage by domain of the NCF (relative to population need health, nutrition, security and safety, responsive caregiving and early learning)Responsive caregiving – nil routine.
Healthcare and nutrition – various per RMNCH indicators.
Early learning – homes that have children’s books, children who have support for learning, children have playthings at home and attendance in early childhood education.
Safety and security – birth registration, basic drinking water and basic sanitation.
QualityQuality of programme provision.
Client experience of service provision.
Home care.
Quality of intervention measures.
Inputs (service and home readiness, policy and
Numbers of workers.
Service readiness.
‘Home readiness’.
ECD policy supports.
Fiscal environment and resources.
Home context.
Policy – maternity leave, convention of the rights of the child, breast feeding.
Education, child health and social protection grants.
National government and donor finance.
  • Bold texts typically measured within routine MNCH programmes.

  • *Defined as the number of individuals receiving an intervention or service (the numerator) compared with the population in need of the intervention or service (the denominator).47

  • ECD, early child development; M&E, monitoring and evaluation; MNCH, maternal, newborn and child health; NCF, Nurturing Care Framework.