Table 3

Multivariable analysis of association between HAZ change and changes in weight, WAZ, WHZ and MUAC during 1-year follow-up

Change between study enrolment and month 12Correlation coefficient†Lost at least 0.25 HAZ*Gained at least 0.25 HAZ*
Adjusted RRR‡95% CIP valuesAdjusted RRR†95% CIP values
Change in weight per  kg0.550.460.39 to 0.56<0.0012.151.82 to 2.54<0.001
Change in WAZ per z-score0.610.440.35 to 0.55<0.0012.191.77 to 2.71<0.001
Change in WHZ per z-score0.150.800.69 to 0.920.0021.100.95 to 1.270.19
Change in MUAC per cm0.460.690.60 to 0.80<0.0011.461.28 to 1.68<0.001
  • *Compared with children with minimal change in HAZ (±0.25Z).

  • †Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient.

  • ‡Adjusted for co-trimoxazole randomisation arm, child carer, born premature (<37 weeks), height-for-age at study enrolment, outpatient treatment for diarrhoea and readmission during follow-up for diarrhoea. Relative risk ratios are computed using multinomial logistic regression with minimal HAZ change (−0.25 to 0.25Z) as the reference. P values from multivariable multinomial logistic regression.

  • HAZ, height/length-for-age z-score; MUAC, mid-upper arm circumference; RRR, relative risk ratio; WAZ, weight-for-age z-score; WHZ, weight-for-height/length z-score.