Table 1

Baseline characteristics of included studies

Study IDCountryStudy designParticipantsData sourceTimeOutcomes reported
Study populationSettingAgeGuideline introductionYears of follow-up
Tyrstrup et al 14 SwedenObservationalN=1 245 599*PC1–12 YRoutine care2010Pre: 2008
Post: 2013
Antibiotic prescription rate
Type of antibiotic
Palma et al 11 ItalyObservationalN=4559
SC0–14 YRoutine care2010Pre: 2007–2010
Post: 2011–2013
Antibiotic prescription rate
Type of antibiotic
Levy et al 9 FranceObservationalN=14 661SC6 M–2 YRoutine care2011Pre1: November 2009–October 2010
Pre2: November 2010–October 2011
Post: November 2011–October 2012
Type of antibiotic
McGrath et al 10 USAObservationalN=4 629 460SC3 M–12 YInsurance databases2004Pre: 2000–2003
Post1: 2005–2007
Post2: 2008–2011
Antibiotic prescription rate
Coco et al 8 USAObservationalN=1114
PC+SC6 M–12 YElectronic surveys2004Pre: January 2002–June 2004
Post: July 2004–December 2006
Antibiotic prescription rate
Type of antibiotic Analgesic prescription rate
Thompson et al 13 UKObservationalN=464 845† PC3 M–15 YRoutine care2003
Pre: 1999–2001
Post: 2005–2006
Antibiotic prescription rate
Ríos et al 12 SpainObservationalN=200
PC2–15 YRoutine care2001Pre: January–March 2000
Post: January–March 2002
Type of antibiotic
  • *Number of patient years.

  • †Number included in total study period of 17 consecutive years, no specific information on number of children over 1999–2001 and 2005–2006 periods.

  • M, months; N, number of patients; N/A, not available; PC, primary care setting; SC, secondary care setting; Y, years.