Table 5

Questionnaire data: between-group differences of changes from baseline (the scores are FFH intervention minus the UC control group)

Change baseline—3 monthsChange baseline—12 months
Mean difference (95% CI)p ValueMean difference (95% CI)p Value
Fruit and vegetable consumption*−0.20 (−1.13 to 0.74)0.681−0.25 (−1.25 to 0.75)0.620
EQ-5D-Y (child reported)
 VAS score*−7.09 (−17.47 to 3.28)0.178−4.37 (−14.58 to 5.85)0.398
 Utility*0.00 (−0.09 to 0.10)0.9670.02 (−0.08 to 0.13)0.667
EQ-5D-Y (parent reported)
 VAS score*−7.14 (−15.06 to 0.78)0.077−6.60 (−14.75 to 1.56)0.111
 Utility*−0.02 (−0.10 to 0.06)0.628−0.04 (−0.11 to 0.04)0.332 
PedsQL
 Overall (child reported)*3.71 (−0.31 to 7.73)0.0701.88 (−3.65 to 7.41)0.502
 Psychosocial score (child reported)*3.74 (−0.66 to 8.14)0.0950.75 (−5.55 to 7.04)0.813
 Physical (child reported)*3.86 (−1.51 to 9.24)0.1574.20 (−2.63 to 11.02)0.225
 Overall (parent reported)*−1.60 (−8.22 to 5.11)0.637−0.62 (−8.05 to 6.81)0.868
 Psychosocial score (parent reported)*−2.42 (−8.73 to 3.90)0.449−2.09 (−8.97 to 4.80)0.548
 Physical (parent reported)*−0.02 (−9.40 to 9.38)0.9972.17 (−8.69 to 13.03)0.697
Parenting style
 Authoritative*−0.05 (−0.27 to 0.16)0.6330.03 (−0.18 to 0.25)0.756
 Authoritarian−0.06 (−0.22 to 0.09)0.431−0.10 (−0.26 to 0.06)0.204
 Permissive−0.02 (−0.29 to 0.25)0.884−0.06 (−0.34 to 0.22)0.684
Child-parent relationship
 Overall*0.05 (−0.12 to 0.22)0.5690.033 (−0.14 to 0.21)0.714
 Conflicts*0.19 (−0.08 to 0.46)0.1610.15 (−0.12 to 0.43)0.267
 Closeness*−0.11 (−0.32 to 0.11)0.331−0.09 (−0.31 to 0.13)0.405
FEAHQ (child)
 Activity level4.36 (−1.86 to 10.57)0.1674.22 (−2.55 to 10.99)0.218
 Stimulus1.08 (−3.34 to 5.50)0.6270.88 (−3.12 to 4.88)0.662
 Eating/hunger−0.55 (−1.36 to 0.26)0.178−0.32 (−1.03 to 0.39)0.370
 Eating style−0.66 (−2.52 to 1.20)0.483−0.51 (−2.70 to 1.69)0.648
 WEMWBS (parent)*0.67 (−3.56 to 4.90)0.7544.46 (−0.47 to 9.39)0.076
  • *Denotes a positive result favours FFH intervention (for all other variables a negative result favours FFH intervention).

  • EQ-5D-Y, EuroQol Five Dimensions Questionnaire Youth Version; FFH, Families for Health; FEAHQ, Family Eating and Activity Habits Questionnaire; PedsQL, Pediatric Quality-of-Life Inventory; UC, usual care; WEMWBS, Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale.