Table 2

Key anaesthetic outcomes relevant to the protocol

Observation windowEvent rates*Significance
OutcomeStudyYearInductionAnaesthesiaEmergenceRecoveryETS+ETS−(##—##)=95% CI
Grouped respiratory adverse events (RAEs)Drongowski2003Embedded Image7/5713/89NS
Embedded Image25/5733/89NS
Embedded Image30/57 24/89p<0.01
Kim2013Embedded Image13/2832/131OR 2.68 (1.15–6.23)
Parnis2001Embedded ImageNo dataNo dataSignificant variable in logistic regression
Seyidov2011Embedded Image50/2348/151p < 0.005
Dose–response effect observed (p=0.001)
Skolnick1998Embedded Image8/13717/365p=0.01 for increased RAEs along ETS exposure gradient
Tait2001Embedded ImageNo dataNo dataRR 1.6 (1.2–2.1)
Thikkurissy2012Embedded ImageNo dataNo dataNo significance reported
LaryngospasmJones2006Embedded Image35/168 10/237p < 0.001
Lakshmipathy1996Embedded Image9/962/214RR 10.0 (2.2–45.6)
Lyons1996Embedded Image2/630/62NS
Mamie2004Embedded ImageNo dataNo dataNS in univariate and multivariate analyses
O'Rourke2006Embedded Image0/540/54None applied
Tütüncü2012Embedded Image6/1002/50None applied
Ungern Sternberg2010Embedded Image99/1075252/8222RR 3.01 (2.40–3.76)
Breath holdingJones2006Embedded Image25/16814/237p=0.003
Lyons1996Embedded Image1/633/62NS
BronchospasmJones2006Embedded Image14/1682/237p<0.001
Lyons1996Embedded Image0/63 0/62NS
O'Rourke2006Embedded Image0/540/54None applied
Tütüncü2012Embedded Image3/1000/50None applied
Ungern Sternberg2010Embedded Image49/1075144/8222RR 2.60 (1.89–3.58)
HypersecretionJones2006Embedded Image63/168 20/237p<0.001
Tütüncü2012Embedded Image18/1004/50None applied
ObstructionJones2006Embedded Image48/16825/237p < 0.001
Lyons1996Embedded Image0/630/62NS
CoughLyons1996Embedded Image6/632/62NS
O'Rourke2006Embedded Image3/54 4/54None applied
Tütüncü2012Embedded Image13/1004/50None applied
DesaturationLyons1996Embedded Image5/632/62NS
Embedded Image19/63 7/62NS
O'Rourke2006Embedded Image1/540/54None applied
Tütüncü2012Embedded Image13/1006/50None applied
Peak-expiratory flow rateO'Rourke2006Significantly lower preoperative peak-expiratory flow rate (9.5 points than predicted, p=0.03) in ETS+ children compared with ETS−
Neuromuscular blockadeReisli2004Time to neuromuscular blockade (measured as T95 and T25 values with rocuronium) was significantly shorter for ETS+ children
  • *Italic data inferred where only percentages available; bold data selected for inclusion in systematic review.

  • CI, confidence interval; ETS, environmental tobacco smoke; NS, non-significant; OR, odds ratio; RR, relative risk.