Table 1

Studies of new biomarkers for AKI in children

Du et al18Urine KIM-1, NGAL, β2M, IL-18, osteopontin232 children presenting to emergency care. KIM-1, NGAL and β2M all demonstrated good accuracy with 25%–50% reduction in eCCl.
Zappitelli et al19Plasma: Cys-C288 children undergoing cardiac surgery. Postoperative Cys-C predicted length of stay in PICU.
Buelow et al20Urine: NGAL, IL-1820 children undergoing cardiac surgery. NGAL and IL-18 early predictive biomarkers of AKI.
Genc et al21Urine: KIM-148 premature babies. Serial urinary KIM-1 was a maker of kidney injury.
Basu et al17Plasma: NGAL, MMP-8, Ela-2214 children admitted to PICU with sepsis. Biomarker performance improved in combination with risk stratification.
McCaffrey et al22Plasma: NGAL, Cys-C
Urine: NGAL, KIM-1
Mixed cohort of 49 children in PICU. Plasma NGAL predicted AKI; Cys-C mirrored change in SCr.
Westhoff et al23Urine: TIMP-2 and IGFBP-7133 mixed cohort of children. The [TIMP-2]•[IGFBP-7] product diagnosed AKI and predicted adverse outcomes.
  • AKI, acute kidney injury; B2M, Beta-2 microglobulin; Cys-C, cystatin C; eCCl, estimated creatinine clearance; IGFBP, insulin-like growth factor binding protein; IL, interleukin; KIM, kidney injury molecule; MMP, matrix metalloproteinase; NGAL, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin; PICU, paediatric intensive care unit; SCr, serum creatinine; TIMP, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase.