Table 1

Examples of existing mobile training tools

Training mechanicsExamples in healthcare education
Presentation of existing static teaching resources (documents, algorithms, illustrations)Application (app) developed to enable easy access to a bioinformatics dictionary for clinicians working in clinical genomics.15
Presentation of videos, animations and podcasts (visual±audio components)Recording and presenting gross pathology examination videos to residents.16
Communication between trainer and trainee (evaluations, supervision, reflection)Use of QR codes combined with electronic surveys to complete residents' evaluations.17
‘Telepresent supervision’ using smartphone with FaceTime connection for medical students learning tracheal intubation.18
App to prompt and enable immediate reflection in the workplace for residents.19
Use of a smartphone app to complement web-based evaluations by students of their placements.20
Augmented and/or virtual realityUse of a ‘virtual’ airway visualised on a mobile phone combined with accelerometry to train medical students in fibreoptic airway techniques.21
Quizzes/test questionsDelivery of two questions a day to general surgical residents via a dedicated app (UF surgery), with notification and reminders to complete the questions. Immediate feedback is provided.22
Detection of movement, sound and other parametersIllustration of the effects of different exercise types on human physiology: medical and biology students undertake exercise and use apps to measure their own heart rate, reaction times, respiratory rate, movement and vasodilation.23
CPR apps (several) provide real-time feedback on rate and depth of cardiac compressions, eg RCP Coach.24
Social media useUse of dedicated Twitter account to relay factual knowledge to medical students.25
Anonymised interactions (surveys, in-lecture polling and feedback)Comparison of ‘clickers’ with smartphones for student interaction in lectures.26
GamesGame based on serial decision trees and virtual patients to teach antimicrobial stewardship.27
Three-dimensional environment game for advanced life support re-training.28