TableĀ 3

Commonly used rheumatological drugs and their respiratory side effects

DrugIndicationPulmonary complication158
MethotrexateJIA, JDM, JSLE, SSc, vasculitis, sarcoidosisPulmonary toxicity (methotrexate lung)
AzathioprineJIA, vasculitisInterstitial pneumonitis, bronchiolitis and diffuse alveolar damage
Cytokine modulators (etanercept, infliximab, rituximab)JIAInterstitial pneumonitis
SulfasalazineJIAFibrosing alveolitis, interstitial pneumonitis
CyclophosphamideArthritisInterstitial pneumonitis
LeflunomideArthritisInterstitial pneumonitis
  • JDM, juvenile dermatomyositis; JIA, juvenile idiopathic arthritis; JSLE, juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus; SSc, systemic sclerosis.